Vitamin deficiency : symptoms, causes and treatment of beriberi

Beriberi - a pathological condition, the occurrence of which is the result of poor nutrition with complete deficiency of vitamins over a prolonged period.

In life, the classic deficiency disease - a rare event, and its external symptoms associated with the vitamin, which is not enough for the normal functioning of the body.

So, in the absence of supply of vitamin C products progresses scurvy (scurvy) and vitamin B1 deficiency when there is pathology, wearing exotic name beriberi.

Causes of beriberi


Basically beriberi provoke the following reasons:

  1. 1) Malnutrition, when part of the vitamins in the diet is much lower than normal.
  2. 2) Unbalanced food.Unless doderzhivatsya proportions between nutrients in the menu may also develop beriberi.Thus, the decrease in the diet of proteins leads to a lack of vitamin B deficiency progresses retinol and vitamin C, folic acid and nicotine.Excess carbohydrate foods leads to a lack of thiamine (vitamin B1).
  3. 3) Failure to comply with food processing technol
    ogies.Some vitamins under the influence of temperature agent loses its biological quality.This also applies to storage rules.For example, vitamin B2 breaks down under the influence of ultraviolet rays and green through storage day has only 40% of the initial content of vitamin C.
  4. 4) Vitamin deficiency occurs when there is an acute need for vitamins and it is irreplaceable.The need for the adoption of increased doses of vitamins occurs during intense physical effort, toil and emotional stress.
  5. 5) The disorder of the digestive processes.Diseases of the parasitic nature.
  6. 6) The long reception of certain drugs.Medications may act as antivitamin and suppress the activity of the vitamins.
  7. 7) Features of metabolic processes in individuals of different age categories.Older people often develop deficiency diseases due to lower intensity absorption processes that have the result of atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, as well as due to chronic processes.At risk are premature babies, as the storage of vitamins in the body of the child falls on the last months of pregnancy.
  8. 8), endocrine disorders (diabetes, myxedema).
  9. 9) Winter season.

Symptoms of beriberi


distinctive feature of beriberi is a specific set of symptoms, depending on the body of the missing vitamin.These symptoms are pronounced and complex influence on the life of the organism.

most often found a lack of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin (vitamin B2), nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid, and vitamin D (calciferol).

  1. Avitaminosis "A" - visible symptoms of retinoic failure being felt changes in the skin, which will melt dry and flaky, as disturbed function salo- and sweating.Hair thinning, and nail plate changing.On the soles of the feet are formed cracks and blisters (see. How to treat cracked heels).Violation of pigment is expressed by a change of color of skin and mucous membranes.
  2. Avitaminosis B2 - in the absence of vitamin B2, there are changes of the skin and eyes.The process involves the mucous membrane of the tongue and lips.Accordingly, there are cracks on the lips, facial skin appears acne, the deterioration of color perception, develop conjunctivitis, stomatitis and glossitis.
  3. Pellagra - this vitamin deficiency manifests itself in the absence of vitamin PP (nicotinic acid).The disease with sudden onset of severe symptoms and proceeds rapidly and in very severe cases can cause death.Among the first there is diarrhea symptoms without streaks of blood and mucus, resulting in the defeat of the digestive system.This is followed by changes in the skin, which manifest themselves dermatitis on exposed skin.Violated psyche (psychosis), the nervous system suffers.
  4. Avitaminosis "C" - a synonym for the word mark "deficiency disease" - scurvy.Pathology is characterized by pain in the lower extremities and back pain, general malaise, fatigue.But there are a leading symptom hemorrhages in the skin, which are localized in most of the organs in motion, but can occur in the eye conjunctiva and manifest uterine bleeding.Gums also bleed, swell and disintegrate, which leads to tooth loss.Among the signs of beriberi insomnia, depression, poor concentration.
symptoms of beriberi are so diverse that they can understand only a specialist after appropriate tests, but there are some signs that suggest a lack of vitamins in his.These characteristics should include:

  • feel tired in the morning and heavy awakening.
  • drowsiness and lethargy during the day.
  • distraction and inattention, decreased ability to hold information in mind.
  • unreasonable irritability.
  • skin problems (cheilitis, dryness).
  • frequent colds.

Treatment beriberi


If beriberi, the treatment should be carried out with synthetic vitamins.If there is no vitamin A comes to the aid of retinol, is a topically ointment containing the concentrate of this vitamin.Food should be easily digestible and rich in carotene and retinol.

Deficiency of vitamin B2, riboflavin is treated by injections, or the same substance, but tablets for about 1.5 months.Simultaneously administered nicotinic and ascorbic acid.It is also desirable to introduce meat and dairy products.

When pellagra is a nicotinic acid or nicotinamide, along with retinol, vitamin B12, riboflavin.In marked depletion practiced transfusions of blood or plasma.We treat the nervous and digestive systems.Eating high-calorie and nutritious.
Scurvy is treated with ascorbic acid and rutin.To eliminate bleeding intramuscularly administered menadione and intravenously - a solution of calcium chloride.


Prevention The most important preventive tool for beriberi various etiologies have a balanced diet, which should come into the body the right amount of vitamins.

In order to prevent the physician may prescribe multivitamin complexes in the prescribed dosage.In addition, the need to lead a healthy lifestyle.


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