Chronic intestinal colitis : symptoms, treatment , causes

Chronic colitis is an inflammatory process that affects the large intestine.

When the disease develops in the bowel wall inflammatory and degenerative process that can eventually lead to atrophy of the mucosa in violation of its functions.

Causes of


to chronic colitis can cause a variety of reasons.The main triggers and cause-significant factors for this disease are the following:

  1. 1) Various microorganisms that provoke the development of infectious inflammation.Most often, this predisposes yersiniosis, dysentery and other intestinal infections, especially if they were diagnosed too late, or have been treated not in full.In addition, the role of causal factors may act and viral agents, which can also cause the development of chronic inflammatory process (in particular against the background of immune system disorders)
  2. 2) Simple and worms that break the state of local immunity (see. Helminthiasis in humans)
  3. 3) in some cases the development of the disease may be associated with activation o
    f conditionally pathogenic microorganisms that reside in the colon.This can occur on the background of violations in the diet, in the presence of opportunistic infections
  4. 4) Various intoxication as the proprietary products of metabolism, and coming from the outside.Such a situation occurs in violation of the kidneys and liver.The kidneys must withdraw waste metabolic substances, and the liver is involved in the processes of disposal of such substances.This is what happens in normal, but in some diseases, this process may be disrupted
  5. 5) Effects of ionizing radiation, which often occurs during treatment
  6. 6) cancer Prolonged use of various pharmacological agents (antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others)
  7. 7) Congenital disorders
  8. 8) metabolic enzyme deficiency that may be either congenital or acquired
  9. 9) The intolerance to certain foods, as well as food allergies
  10. 10) Atherosclerotic mesenteric arteries thatnourish the small and large intestines
  11. 11) systemic connective tissue diseases.
Thus, the development of chronic colitis can cause a variety of factors.On the one hand, it can be infectious agents, on the other - ischemic, etc.Therefore, in view of the chronic colitis to classify as follows:

  • infectious
  • nutritional
  • toxic
  • ischemic
  • allergic
  • radiation
  • combined.

Classification


also chronic colitis can be divided into other types according to different classification approaches.Depending on the clinical course of isolated acute stage and remission (subsiding of clinical symptoms).

colon involvement may be segmental (pathological process involves only some of his department), or total, in which the entire colon is affected.

Colitis may also be of varying severity.The basis of this classification is the degree of developing inflammatory changes.Therefore emit light, moderate and severe chronic colitis.

In this disease may be disrupted as a motor function, and digestive.Violation of motor function can be hyperdynamic, hypodynamic or mixed type.Violation of the digestive function, if present, occurs on the type of decay or fermentation, which leads to the development of dyspepsia.

symptoms of chronic colitis bowel


Clinical manifestations of chronic colitis is characterized by alternating periods of remission and exacerbation.Typically, in the first case, of disease symptoms occurs almost not or are pronounced.Typically, patients with this disease go to the doctor during an exacerbation.

It is characterized by such clinical symptoms as:

  1. 1) pain, which often are located in the side of the abdomen.They may have a different character - from spastic (cramping) to aching.As a rule, irradiation is not observed when they
  2. 2) Altered stool in chronic colitis.In some patients may experience diarrhea, while others - constipation, depending on the type of developing disturbances in motor and digestive functions of the large intestine
  3. 3) The constant rumbling in the gut
  4. 4) Unexplained his wind (flatulence), but sometimes it is possible to identifyconnection with one or another causal factor
  5. 5) After a bowel movement is not a full sense of this, which can lead to mood swings, increased irritability of the patient, etc.
  6. 6) There are tenesmus, ie the urge to act of defecation, which are not accompanied them.This greatly exhausts the patient
  7. 7) the presence of dyspepsia, which include nausea, feeling bitter or metallic taste in your mouth.
gradually in these patients develops asthenoneurotic syndrome, which manifests itself by the following features:

  • weakness
  • fatigue that interferes with their lifestyle patient
  • frequent mood swings
  • headache
  • depression
    mood
  • irritability
  • insomnia, etc.
Against malabsorption and fermentation processes develop symptoms of malabsorption.This leads to the development of anemia and hypovitaminosis, which is manifested the characteristic features, namely:

  • pale skin
  • hair loss
  • brittle nails
  • breach of taste, etc.
All these signs of malabsorption usually occurs in patients with long-existing chronic colitis, as it leads to a secondary involvement in the pathological process of the small intestine.

diagnosis of chronic colitis


Finally confirm the diagnosis of chronic colitis additional help methods.Among the most informative are the following:

  • intestine X-ray examination with a contrast that reveals the violation of motor function
  • microscopic examination of feces
  • bacteriological examination of feces with the definition of the spectrum sensitivity of the isolated microorganisms.
results of all diagnostic tests should be evaluated together with the data of the clinical picture.This allows the doctor to put the correct diagnosis.

treatment of chronic colitis


treatment of chronic colitis is conducted by conservative methods, and it varies during exacerbation and remission.

In the latter case, the greatest importance is attached to diet, which allows soon as possible to normalize the colon.

It should be based on the following principles:

  1. 1) In the case of constipation in the diet must exist vegetable fibers
  2. 2) Drinking during the day it will take about 2 liters of purified water without gas
  3. 3) Legkousvayaemye carbohydrates shouldbe removed from the diet, as they stimulate the fermentation processes in the large intestine
  4. 4) in the case of diarrhea from the diet is necessary to remove the bean products that stimulate flatulence
  5. 5) food must pass both mechanical and heat treatment to providegentle effect on the intestine.
During exacerbation of chronic colitis shown holding therapy, which focuses on the following factors:

  • normalization of intestinal microflora
  • restoration of normal motor function of the intestine
  • treatment of concomitant diseases that can stimulate the progression of chronic colitis.
Given the fact that infectious-dependent colitis occurs most often, it is more rational to consider his treatment program.

It involves the use of the following drugs:

  1. 1) Antibiotics, which are assigned based on the sensitivity of the isolated microorganisms and only in the acute period
  2. 2) Subsequent use of probiotics, which restore the qualitative and quantitative composition of microorganisms in the colon
  3. 3) The use of antispasmodic agents, which allow to cope with the pain in spasm intestines
  4. 4) Receiving drugs that normalize the stool (laxatives for constipation and fastening diarrhea)
  5. 5) Enzyme preparations, which prevent the development of malabsorption syndrome.

Prevention


main preventive measures that will prevent the development of intestinal colitis, are the following:

  1. 1) A balanced diet, which in sufficient quantity is contained vegetable fibers
  2. 2) The daily water requirement should be 2-2.5 liters, depending on the time of year
  3. 3) Careful hand washing to avoid infection with pathogens
  4. 4) refusal of bad habits
  5. 5) Regular visits to the toilet, as this will avoid the activation of opportunisticmicroflora is constantly present in the intestine
  6. 6) Visit a gastroenterologist at the slightest problems in bowel habits that will help to diagnose a particular disease process of the digestive system and to start treatment promptly.


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