Sarcoidosis of the lungs : Symptoms and Treatment , causes, prevention

What is it - the term "sarcoidosis" imply a systemic disease of various organs, which is characterized by inflammation of the tissues with the subsequent formation of clusters of abnormal cells, called granulomas.

One of the most common types of sarcoidosis is pulmonary sarcoidosis, which is also called sarcoidosis or Boeck disease Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann.

lung Sarcoidosis diagnosed in more than 90% of cases of sarcoidosis disease, although it is rarely isolated and combined with the same lymph node or skin.

According to statistical reports, the disease is most common in people of Northern Europe, as well as African Americans and Asians.Ill mostly women under the age of 40 years.To date, the etiology of the disease is not fully understood.The main reasons doctors believe heredity, infection, diseases of the immune system.

Classification


Sarcoidosis Lung exists in several forms, which simultaneously also determine the stage of disease:

  1. 1) intrathoracic initial limfozhelistaya form (1st stage
    of the disease)
  2. 2) mediastinal-pulmonary pulmonary form (2th stage of the disease)
  3. 3) pulmonary form (3rd stage of the disease)
At the first stage of sarcoidosis registered bilateral asymmetric increase in bronchopulmonary lymph nodes.In rare cases, the defeat hurt tracheobronchial, bifurcation or paratracheal nodes.

mediastinal-pulmonary form is a lesion of intrathoracic lymph nodes.This is in addition to the infiltration of the lung tissue, as well as bilateral focal or miliary dissemination.

pulmonary form represents a third stage of the disease.In this situation the lesions become increasingly severe.Against the background of the formation of the drain conglomerates recorded appearance of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.Also

pulmonary sarcoidosis classified depending on the speed with which it progresses.

In this case, the release:

  • chronic sarcoidosis
  • slow sarcoidosis
  • progressive sarcoidosis
  • abortive sarcoidosis

Symptoms of pulmonary sarcoidosis


pulmonary sarcoidosis in most cases develops gradually.The first symptoms are felt fever, aches in joints, sleep disorders.The person feels constant fatigue and lack of energy.There is loss of appetite and, as a result, quite a significant weight loss.

presence of signs of pulmonary sarcoidosis also depends on what stage of development the disease.So, for mediastinal-pulmonary form is characterized by a cough and shortness of breath, which are combined with a pain in the sternum.

Also in this form may experience skin lesions, the parotid and salivary glands, lymph nodes.The intrathoracic form is characterized by pain in the chest, the presence of wheezing and coughing.These signs combined with a high body temperature.Also at this stage often diagnose erythema nodosum skin.

When pulmonary form of cough and shortness of breath worse, they are joined by sputum, sometimes with blood.Also, deteriorating work of all organs and systems, in particular, are formed by the signs of cardiopulmonary failure.


Diagnosis Diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical data, as well as a detailed examination of the patient's history and its heritage.Then, a complete blood count.In sarcoidosis, it contains some changes, namely: leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, eosinophilia, lymphopenia.

patients with suspected pulmonary sarcoidosis is recommended to undergo a series of procedures.First of all, lung CT and MRI.These studies define focal dissemination, increase in lymph nodes.Also, do not be amiss to spend bronchoscopy.

most accurate diagnosis to confirm or deny the presence of pulmonary sarcoidosis, provides histological analysis.It is conducted on biopsy samples that are removed during bronchoscopy transtorkalnoy puncture or biopsy.In addition, high reliability demonstrates the use of the so-called Kveim sample.This analysis comprises administering subcutaneous sarcoid antigen.

After about 3 weeks of the injection site is excised, and the sample is carried out histological analysis.With a positive result of the tests indicated the development of a standard Kveim sarcoid granulomas.

are often cases where pulmonary sarcoidosis occurs absolutely without any symptoms.Typically, in such a situation, the illness is diagnosed during routine radiographic examination.

Treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis


Given the long-term development of pulmonary sarcoidosis, the patient requires constant medical supervision for 6-8 months.Appointment of Certain medications depends on what stage the disease.

All patients in the dispensary, divided into several groups:

  • patients with active sarcoidosis
  • patients whose diagnosis established for the first time
  • patients with recurrence or exacerbation of disease
  • patients who have sarcoidosisis in the inactive phase (residual phenomena are observed)
For pulmonary sarcoidosis in most cases, different immunosuppressants are used, in particular, prednisolone and dexamethasone.Moreover, this disease therapy involves the use of binding anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin and voltaren.

Specific drugs, fighting sarcoidosis today unfortunately does not exist.This is due to the fact that the etiology of the disease has not been established.

forecast sarcoidosis


In most cases, a benign sarcoidosis.However, many of its forms are characterized by the absence of any obvious symptoms and do not deliver a man of strong discomfort.

Approximately 30% of patients with sarcoidosis, the lung becomes chronic.In this case, you need regular monitoring by a doctor and possible prevention of respiratory failure, which is often formed with such a course of disease.

have a certain number of patients recovery is possible after the first successful treatment.Other disease can lifelong remind yourself many remissions.

prognosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis is significantly improved if the disease was detected in the early stages, which is why it is recommended not to neglect preventive radiological procedures.

complications of sarcoidosis


In sarcoidosis, the formation of complications, most of which hurt the respiratory tract and the cardiovascular system.These complications, in particular pulmonary heart syndrome belongs.In this state, thickening of the heart wall, its blood supply is disrupted.As a result of heart failure may develop.

also frequently a complication of sarcoidosis is pulmonary emphysema, bronhoobturatsionny syndrome.The process of fibrosis sarcoid granulomas in 10% of cases can lead to interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.Sometimes sarcoidosis background may also appear and pulmonary tuberculosis, or infections occur accession.

Prevention sarcoidosis


Preventive measures in sarcoidosis include rules embodied in the life of a healthy lifestyle.In order to prevent the possible occurrence of the disease, it is recommended to stop smoking.

should also be limited to a minimum consumption of products with different kinds of unnatural additives, limit contact with harmful chemicals.

particular risk of developing sarcoidosis exist in people already diagnosed with abnormalities of the immune system.Such people need to be more attentive to their health, and at the slightest suspicion apply to the medical institution.

People who have already been diagnosed with sarcoidosis, should also be attentive to their health, to prevent possible complications of the disease.One of the important rules for these patients is to limit calcium intake.

Since sarcoidosis is an abnormal formation of stones in the bladder, the food is rich in calcium, it will only accelerate this process.For the same reason, it is necessary to limit its exposure to the sun: solar baths promote enhanced production of vitamin D, which, in turn, increases the amount of calcium in the blood.


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