Chronic bronchitis : symptoms in adults , treatment, causes

Argued that bronchitis is not so dangerous and is easily treatable.This is not true.

Today bronchitis is the most common disease that is threatening complications and is detrimental to health.Bronchitis is of two types: acute and chronic, different forms of the disease on the pathogenesis, etiology and treatment.

Chronic bronchitis - a special lesion of the bronchi, characterized by inflammation of the bronchioles and bronchi of the mucous membrane of the tree.

Because inflammation occurs hypersecretion of mucus, violated protective and cleaning function of the bronchi.In which case, bronchitis is considered a chronic disease?If the patient continues to cough for three months during the year and the disease lasts for more than two years.

According to medical statistics, among the patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract, 90% of people suffer it from bronchitis.

Causes of chronic bronchitis


What leads to the development of chronic bronchitis in adults?There are many reasons that pro
voke the disease.Important role played by environmental situation and working conditions.If inhaled air contains harmful impurities, irritating the mucous membrane, the occurrence of bronchitis inevitable.

Smokers, both active and passive, are exposed to nicotine, resulting in a two to five times more likely to suffer from bronchitis.Tobacco smoke reduces the resistance of the bronchial tubes, their protective functions to external factors.For contamination of the environment are most sensitive smokers and people exposed to the allergy.

Working conditions also affect the condition of the mucosa.Professions associated with the necessity of contact with toxic chemicals, dust, soot, paint, varnish, glue considered hazardous, and often lead to the development of acute and chronic bronchitis.

Risk Factors:

  • active and passive smoking;
  • pollutants industrial character;
  • pathological structure of the nasal passages (septum bending), breathing through the nose;
  • viruses, allergens;
  • respiratory diseases;
  • noncommunicable diseases: heart failure, arrhythmia, esophageal reflux, pulmonary thromboembolism.
At constant irritation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi production factors reduced the protective function of the bronchi and lungs, alveoli and deteriorating work ciliated epithelium.

presence in the air of carbon monoxide, smoke, nitric acid provoke respiratory diseases.Cigarette smoke increases the production of mucus and reduces the necessary amount of oxygen intake.As a result, developing mucosal hypertrophy, reduced smooth muscle fibers and degrades the normal airway clearance.

risk factors are also viral infections.In adults, acute bronchitis, in diseases such as influenza, parainfluenza, rhinoviruses.There is a violation of the integrity of the epithelium, produced the bacteria in the bronchial mucosa.Studies show that bronchitis is caused by pneumococcus (80%) and Haemophilus influenzae (20%).Respiratory diseases, acute bronchitis and pneumonia led to the emergence of chronic bronchitis.

Symptoms of chronic bronchitis in adults


Chronic bronchitis in adults appears general weakness, chills, fever, dry cough, sweating.

Also, one of the first symptoms of bronchitis listed dry exhausting cough that hurts at night, when sleep is disrupted, there is irritability, nervousness.

With adequate treatment of dry cough becomes wet, the patient's condition is somewhat simplified.If within 2-3 months of cough does not stop, there is a probability of occurrence of chronic bronchitis.

first patient coughs a long time in the morning, without giving it a value.But the disease can progress, and the cough becomes permanent.They talk about the chronic form in the case of recurrent bronchitis for several years.

By the nature of the disease is divided into the following types:

  1. 1) non-obstructive (simple) without evidence of violations of ventilation;
  2. 2) suppurative obstructive disorders without ventilation;
  3. 3) Obstructive a manifestation of the bronchi ventilation disorders;
  4. 4) Pyo-obstructive, characterized by purulent processes and disorders of ventilation of the bronchi functions.
The level of destruction of the bronchi, the disease is divided into the following types:

  • proximal to the lesion of the large bronchi;
  • distal to the lesion of the small bronchi.
course of the disease may be rare or frequent exacerbations, continuously relapsing or latent.If bronchial obstruction appear dry rales, wheezing, labored breathing, shortness of breath.It should be remembered that chronic bronchitis - a dangerous disease with possible complications.If not properly treated, or untimely treatment of the patient to the doctor to respiratory and cardiac failure, pulmonary emphysema.

Treatment of chronic bronchitis


Before you assign the treatment of chronic bronchitis, it is necessary to make a diagnosis.To confirm the diagnosis in adults is performed instrumental and laboratory investigations.

Instrumental studies are divided into these types:

  • bronchography;
  • bronchoscopy;
  • radiography;
  • blood test gas composition;
  • X-ray light.
Laboratory tests include:

  • sputum;
  • complete blood count;
  • full blood count (biochemistry).
For proper treatment should determine the cause of the disease.If occurrence of bronchitis was caused by contact with allergic or chemicals, it is first necessary to eliminate the negative factors, quit smoking, limit the impact of the infection foci.Meals should be balanced and include protein foods and vitamins.Successful treatment requires excessive drinking 2-4 liters of warm liquid.

Treatment of chronic bronchitis includes antibiotic therapy to ten days, and clears his throat preparations.As antibacterial agents administered antiseptics, antibiotics, volatile, sulfonamides.

effective is physiotherapy - UHF, quartz, mustard plasters, compresses, banks inhalation.For non-traditional methods of treatment include acupuncture.For each patient individually chosen method of treatment.

facilitate the patient's condition to help folk remedies.Decoction of herbs: licorice root, marshmallow, mother - and stepmother, succession, Labrador tea is prepared in a water bath and take half cup three times a day for 20 minutes before eating.For inhalation use garlic, onions, these plants are rich in volatile production.

See also, the treatment of bronchitis at home.

Prevention


For the prevention of chronic bronchitis should first strengthen the protective function of the respiratory system and improve your overall immunity.Daily walks in the fresh air, physical exercise, hardening, a balanced diet will help to strengthen the body.

When autumn and winter starts outbreak of infectious diseases, it is necessary to lubricate the nasal mucosa oxolinic ointment, taking immunomodulators to use natural volatile (garlic, radish, onions).In order to prevent such a drug is effective as a Bronhomunal.


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