Endometriosis : Symptoms and Treatment , Causes, photos

What is it?Endometriosis is one of the most complex in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the sexual sphere in women.

This disease is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of the endometrium - the inner layer of the uterus, outside the uterus or within the body itself.

The disease is accompanied by quite severe pain, menstrual irregularities.

In addition, endometriosis in most cases leads to infertility, which is why its early detection and treatment - one of the most urgent problems of modern gynecology.

cause of endometriosis: what is it?


In today's time in medicine, there are many versions and theories about the causes of endometriosis, but there is still no consensus on what is a fundamental factor in the formation of this pathology.

Most doctors believe the main cause of endometriosis is hormonal.This is due to the fact that this disease is most amenable to treatment with hormones.In addition, it is proved that those pieces of the endometrium, which detect outside the uterus, r
esponding to hormonal changes in a woman's body.

According hormonal theory of endometriosis occurs degeneration of one kind of tissue - coelomic epithelium in the other - the endometrium.Most often this occurs in women with unstable hormonal or thyroid disease.

Another common cause of endometriosis - a mechanical cause, or as it is called, the implant.According to this theory, the endometrial cells are transported outside the uterine opposite way, there is the so-called retrograde menstruation.Most often, such a pathology develops when normal menstruation, after a traumatic childbirth or abortion complications.

Getting into the abdominal cavity, endometrial cells are implanted in the ovaries, the peritoneum, the bowel.In addition, a common situation when endometrial cells grow into the muscular uterine sphere.

important factor influencing the formation of endometrial lesions is a genetic predisposition: usually the highest risk of developing those women whose mothers were ill at the time the disease.At the moment, the exact mechanism of inheritance is unknown, although scientists have managed to identify defects in several genes involved in the formation of disease.

Symptoms of endometriosis


set of signs and symptoms of endometriosis depends on its shape, as well as the stage of the disease.

Depending on the localization of foci of endometrium, endometriosis is genital and extra.

When genital form affects the genital organs: the ovaries, cervix, vagina, and at extragenital - bowel, omentum, stomach, bladder, lungs, inguinal canal and many other organs.

common symptom of endometriosis is pain of varying degrees of force.Most often, the pain is localized in the pelvic area.It increases during menstruation, and is particularly noticeable during intercourse, when urinating or defecating.If we are talking about extragenital endometriosis, the pain can be more precise localization.

In this case, it is also possible the appearance of special characteristics from the affected organ, such as kidney endometriosis blood appears in the urine may develop pyelonephritis.But endometriosis of the rectum is fraught with the development of chronic colitis.

presence of endometriosis also causes disruption of the menstrual cycle.In most cases we are talking about increasing the amount of discharge, menstrual pain amplification.Also common sign can be spotting, which begins a few days before the beginning of the month.Increasing blood loss usually leads to a decrease in hemoglobin and, consequently, to anemia.

In most cases, endometriosis disease can not be a healthy conception, so women in this case suffer from infertility.Usually, after a course of treatment, fertility is increased and a woman can make to a healthy baby.

Diagnosing Endometriosis


belongs to the category of diseases that are difficult to diagnose, especially when you consider the fact that in some cases the disease is nearly asymptomatic.

For suspected endometriosis should conduct a pelvic or gynecological, rectal examination of women.During this examination, the doctor can detect a voltage in the appendages of the uterus, or the Douglas space.The definitive diagnosis of endometriosis can be supplied only by means of special procedures - hysteroscopy and laparoscopy.

In some cases also need to CT and MRI.But ultrasound diagnosis in this situation is not sufficiently effective, as seen from endometriosis sites, especially the small size, they are almost not visible.

treatment of endometriosis


To date, the most effective is surgical treatment of endometriosis.It is used in endometroidnyh ovarian cysts, endometriosis nodal forms, in situations where the body of the uterus endometriosis combined with fibroadenoma.

Surgical treatment of endometriosis is the complete removal of foci of abnormal growth of endometrial cells.In some very advanced cases may require removal of the whole organ.

In the initial stage of a disease amenable to good hormonal therapy.Specifically, progestogens are widely used: dydrogesterone, norethisterone;estrogen-progestin;antagonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone;gestrinone.In most cases, hormonal therapy combined with surgery.

Also, treatment for endometriosis is aimed at eliminating the pain, so it is appropriate to use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics.In addition the patient is assigned obscheukrepitelnaya therapy: anti-oxidants, vitamins, diet, sedatives.

Prevention


prevention of endometriosis is, first of all, in regular visits to the gynecologist, because very often the disease for a long time makes itself felt.Routine inspections help to identify disease at an early stage and to avoid repetition.

also recommended that the following rules and regulations:

  • avoid heavy physical exertion during menstruation
  • not engage in sexual intercourse during menstruation
  • reduce to a minimum the use of tampons
  • sleep well and try not to be nervous
It is particularly important to comply with preventive measures for young women of childbearing age.Endometriosis is in an advanced stage is fraught with serious problems in the genital area and the inability to have children.


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