Ovarian Cysts : Symptoms , treatment , causes, photo

What is it?Ovarian cysts are tumor formation, associated with the accumulation of fluid within the formation.

morphologically distinguish cysts are several options that differ in clinical diagnostic plan.

Classification


ovarian cysts are classified as follows:

  1. 1) Cysts functional origin, which include follicular and corpus luteum cysts
  2. 2) Endometrial cysts - a variant manifestations of endometriosis
  3. 3) parovarian cyst thatThey do not develop from the ovary, and from the adjacent formations
  4. 4) Tek-lutein cysts
  5. 5) epithelial cysts, which may be benign, malignant and borderline.

Causes


causes of ovarian cysts can be different, and they depend on the specific type of tumor structures.Thus, the etiology (causes of) endometrioid cyst finally installed.

Currently, to distinguish between the following predisposing factors that increase the likelihood of formation of these cysts:

  • abortion history
  • surgery on the pelvic organs
  • wearing IUD
  • impaired immunity
  • reflux menstrualblood from the fallopian tube into the abdominal cavity
  • family history of the disease
  • surgery for cervical, conducted before and immediately after menstruation, etc.
Functional cysts usually develop in violation of ovarian-menstrual cycle.In most cases we are talking about hyperestrogenemia, violation of ovulation, etc.

Tekalyuteinovye cysts always occur against a background of high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, which has a stimulating effect on the ovarian tissue.This occurs in two main ways:

  1. 1) trophoblastic disease
  2. 2) Stimulation of ovulation hormones.
other causal factors formation of ovarian cysts are such as:

  • inflammation of the pelvic organs, in which the formation of fluid (inflammatory secretions)
  • anomalies of genital organs
  • surgery on the pelvic organs
  • abortion, etc.

Symptoms of ovarian cysts


long time, ovarian cysts can does not manifest clinically and be a random finding during a patient examination.That is why all women should regularly visit a gynecologist.

This will help to diagnose the symptoms and the presence of a pathological process in the female pelvic organs.The appearance of clinical signs of ovarian cysts indicates advanced disease.

The main ones are the following symptoms:

  • pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen
  • frequent urination
  • violation of ovarian-menstrual cycle (heavy menstruation, delayed menstruation, etc.)
  • pain inmenstrual period (algomenorrhea) and / or pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), which are typical manifestations of ovarian endometriosis, etc.

Diagnosing ovarian cysts


Diagnostic search for suspected ovarian cysts involves performing the following studies:

  • ultrasound, which is one of the main places to establish this diagnosis
  • ergography - radiographic bowel study fordetection and possible compression of its germination
  • computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which are assessed in difficult diagnostic cases
  • study blood levels of CA-125, which increases in ovarian cancer and endometriosis.
final diagnosis can be set after the surgery.In this case, the removal of biological material is subjected to histological examination, which allows you to exclude or confirm the malignant process.

Given the fact that the ultrasound diagnosis is a leader in establishing the diagnosis, it is necessary to elaborate on it.It can be carried out dynamically, is non-invasive and highly informative method.

follicular cyst is characterized by the following features:

  • single chamber formation
  • rounded shape
  • process is rarely bilateral
  • inner surface of the cyst is smooth, without any growths
  • is ehonegativnoe education
  • size reaches 3-10 cm
  • vessels are located only at the periphery of education
  • spontaneously disappear within 1-2 months, even without treatment.
ultrasound criteria of cysts of the corpus luteum are:

  1. 1) Average size - 5 cm
  2. 2) Do not have a central vessels, only peripheral unlike epithelial cysts
  3. 3) Most occur in the first trimester of pregnancy,and subsequently regress.
Tekalyuteinovye cysts are multi-chamber.They can reach large proportions.Pass without a trace after the normalization of the level of human chorionic gonadotropin.

Paraovarialnye cysts are characterized by the following features:

  • very similar to follicular cysts
  • unlike them are close to the detection of ovarian cyst unchanged
  • cyst size reaches 8-15 cm in diameter
  • no dynamic growthand reduction depending on the phase
  • menstrual cycle mode color Doppler blood vessels do not show up.
Endometriosis ovaries can use ultrasound to diagnose on the basis of the following criteria:

  • presence of fine suspended matter within
  • cysts can sometimes be detected parietal hyperechoic inclusions
  • typical localization - rear and side of the uterus
  • cyst wallreaches a size of 2-5 mm
  • availability of its dual circuit
  • cyst size depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle.

ovarian cyst treatment


Treatment of ovarian cysts should be performed differentially depending on the nature of the pathological process.Thus, treatment of ovarian endometrioid cyst is usually performed before the age of menopause, when often regress the disease.

It should be based on the following principles:

  1. 1) The first step is shown holding a surgery - the most radical and organosberegajushchih cyst removal
  2. 2) Then, in order to prevent recurrence shown holding hormone therapy.Sometimes the treatment is necessary to begin with it, and then have to operate.
for hormonal therapy following drugs are used:

  • progestins (usually it is preferred for the treatment of women planning pregnancy)
  • combined oral contraceptives
  • antiestrogens
  • GnRH agonists
  • antigonadotropiny.
Inflammatory and parovarian cyst (they may be too inflammatory origin) in the first stage are treated conservatively.For this purpose, use:

  • antimicrobials
  • NSAIDs
  • vitamins.
In the absence of the effect of such therapy and sufficiently large cyst shows the operation.Cysts are small diameter require follow-up.Operation often with such tumors is performed laparoscopically, as it has a good cosmetic result, and a woman can quickly return to normal life.

Malignant epithelial cysts should be treated comprehensively:

  • surgical removal
  • radiotherapy
  • chemotherapy.
The treatment of tumors has been an oncologist-gynecologist.Borderline ovarian cysts should always be removed as it is not known when there will be a transformation in the malignant process.

Weather Forecast treatment


treatment largely depends on the nature of ovarian cysts and the severity of pathological changes in it.The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more effective is the treatment.

prognostic most favorable are functional ovarian cysts.During the hormonal treatment are over several menstrual cycles regress.In order to prevent their recurrence shown holding hormone therapy for 3-6 months.

Endometrial ovarian cysts often recur.Therefore conducted cyclic hormone therapy.Usually, it is carried out before the age of natural menopause.

For early detection of recurrence of ovarian cysts women to be seen regularly by a gynecologist, while in his dispensary.To this end, it is shown holding the vaginal and / or ultrasound.

Complications of ovarian cysts


lack of timely treatment of ovarian cysts can lead to a number of complications.They can occur after various times after the initial diagnosis of the disease.

main complications are the following:

  • cyst rupture with cysts acute abdomen clinical development
  • festering
  • abdominal bleeding as a result of rupture of the cyst
  • malignancy cyst, that is, its malignant degeneration
  • compression of adjacent organswhen large amounts of education.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the ovarian cyst may have different origins, which should be considered in the course of treatment.It can be both conservative and operative.However, before doing so be sure to specify the diagnosis, which used additional methods of research.


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