Manic depression, or bipolardisorder (BAR) - a severe mental disorder in which the undulating change of affective states (phases) - from depression (anxiety, sadness, lethargy) to the manic (overexcitement, hyperactivity, euphoria).
According to statistics, bipolar disorder affects about 3% of the population, and, the disease most often begins in young or adolescence, usually up to 25 years.Manic - depressive psychosis equally affects men and women, however, noted that women often dominated by depressive syndromes and manic at the men.
reasons manic - depressive syndrome is not fully understood, however, the main factor in the development of the disease is considered to be genetic (hereditary) predisposition.In addition, a role can play a trauma and brain disease, significant neuro - mental stress and partic
Manic Depression: Symptoms and phase ^
manic - depressive psychosis has many varieties.In some patients, it occurs in the form of an attack of depression, which in a few light years, is replaced by manic symptoms.In another embodiment, a plurality of depressive episodes may occur, followed by a manic episode.
In some cases, can only occur manic symptoms, or the simultaneous presence of manic and depressive symptoms that quickly follow each other, in a matter of hours.If bipolar disorder is not treated, the disease will progress continuously, and the gaps between the individual phases shortened.Moreover, the shorter the interval, the harder and longer it will take the healing process.
main phase of depression symptoms:
- sadness, anxiety, sadness, emptiness;
- loss of interest in activities previously is of interest;
- irritability and excessive worry;
- feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, guilt;
- inability to concentrate on anything and the lack of vital energy;
- physical, speech and intellectual retardation;
- lack of appetite, insomnia;
- suicidal thoughts.
Besides psychological problems could add problems in the cardiovascular system (arrhythmia, tachycardia, bradycardia) and gastro - intestinal tract (spastic constipation).In severe cases, the patient may fall into a stupor - it ceases to eat, drink, go to the toilet, do not respond to the speech addressed to him, and is in complete stillness and quiet.
symptoms of the manic phase:
- high self-esteem;
- irritable and aggressive, often provocative behavior;
- pathologically elevated mood and euphoria unfounded;
- excessive talkativeness and motor stimulation.
patients in the manic phase, the perception becomes the reality of what is happening, endlessly generates absolutely crazy ideas, is not sitting still and can talk almost incessantly for a long period of time.
Manic depression treatment and diagnostics ^
diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the doctor puts at least two episodes of affective mood swings.If the depressive episode was replaced by a slight manic state, or, on the contrary, after a manic attack came a state of mild depression, diagnosed by a single depressive or manic episode.
view of the seriousness of the disease, the treatment of manic depression should only be done by a qualified doctor - psychotherapist.Self-treatment is unacceptable, because it can be very dangerous and lead to tragic consequences, up to intelligence disorders, loss of health and suicide.
treatment regimen selected after a thorough examination, and depends on what phase of the disease is currently ill.In the arsenal of doctors there is a large choice of sedatives and antipsychotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers.
the appointment of treatment is very important to avoid the development of phase inversion, that is, the sudden transition of mania to depression, and vice versa.For this patient, except for acute treatment, mood stabilizers are appointed - drugs that stabilize mood.This effect is achieved through the content of the mood stabilizers lithium salts, which reduce the tendency to change the mood in 70% of patients with BAR.
It is important to bear in mind that excessive concentration of lithium can have many side effects:
- excessive thirst,
- frequent urination,
- weight gain,
- tremors and muscle twitching,
- cardiac arrhythmias,
- decrease in thyroid hormones,
therefore must be treated with the necessary regular monitoring of blood lithium.
Side effects most often occur in the treatment of elderly patients with lithium.Pregnant women and women planning pregnancy intake of lithium salts is contraindicated, as they may cause heart defects in fetal development.In such cases, as an alternative to replace the current widely used anticonvulsant drugs, the treatment to be carried out under the constant control of blood and blood eritrofitov (as there may be a tendency to reduce them) and liver function.
After the relief of acute symptoms of the disease, to bring before the end of the treatment, patients with manic depression is recommended to undergo a course of psychotherapy - it will help to better understand their disease and learn how to cope with it.Do not think that the diagnosis of manic depression - is a judgment call and consider themselves as "abnormal."
results of a major study, which analyzed the life of a large number of men of genius, have shown that many prominent people (poets, composers, scientists, prominent political figures) suffered manic - depressive psychosis.It is in a state of hypomania that dramatically increases energy levels and thinking becomes sharp and clear, they were able to direct the strength and energy in the right direction, with the result that the light appeared a work of genius.
suffered from bipolar disorder Pushkin Freyd, Hemingway, Van Gogh, Churchill, Schopenhauer, Roosevelt, Gogol, Goethe, Dickens and many other great minds.However, a heavy price to pay for their talent became as bright manifested phase of depression that comes to euphoria when they lose the meaning of life, and came to thoughts of suicide.
Fortunately, medical science has since made great progress and we live in a time when modern technology to treat mental illness is so improved that allow you to completely remove the negative symptoms of manic disorders and restore health and peace of mind.
See Also video-known doctor - psychotherapist Elman Osmanov about the symptoms and treatments of depression: