leukocytes - white blood cells, produced and ripened in the cells of bone marrow and lymph nodes, and plays a huge role in protecting the body against viruses, bacteria, fungi, bacteria and other foreign microorganisms.
What is the white blood cells and their role in the body ^
White blood cells (WBC), along with platelets and red blood cells are uniform, ie the cellular elements of the blood.
to leukocytes include an entire group of cells, each of which performs a specific safety function:
- example, lymphocytes have a unique feature not only distinguish a foreign protein (antigen) from their own cells, but also have immune memory, ie,"remember" all the germs with which they when - ever had to meetand know how to deal with them.
- If you get any infection in the body, lymphocytes first encounter "uninvited guests" to quickly recognize foreign antigens and trigger a chain of immune reactions.That lymphocytes are central to the immunity of the whole organism.
- neutrophils - white blood cells are the most numerous cells that make up 93 - 96% of the total weight and able to move quickly to the site of inflammation.
- If you have a bacterial or fungal infection, they multiply rapidly and can easily penetrate through the walls of the capillaries in the infected tissue.
- main function of neutrophils - the absorption and dissolution of small foreign particles (phagocytosis), after which they die.
- Eosinophils, though less numerous than neutrophils, have similar properties - are actively moving in the direction of the infection outbreak, easily pass through the capillaries and absorb small foreign cells.
- addition, eosinophils absorb and bind histamine and other allergic mediators, playing a role proallergicheskuyu or antiallergic and protect against many parasites and helminthes, including from helminthic infestations.
- Monocytes also called phagocytic mononuclear cells or tissue macrophages, unlike neutrophils and eosinophils performed phagocytosis larger particles (damaged tissue, bacteria, dead leucocytes) without dying after phagocytosis, and the cleaning and readyinginflammation place for later recovery (regeneration).
- Basophils - the least numerous type of white blood cells (0 - 1%), this is a "first aid" with intoxication and bites of poisonous insects and animals.
- Due to the large number of basophils in serotonin, histamine, prostaglandins and other mediators of inflammation and allergies, they block received poisons in the tissues and does not allow them to spread throughout the body.
white blood cell count: the norm and deviation ^
Norma leukocytes in the blood is not constant, it varies within wide limits (even during the day), and depends on many factors (age, menstrual cycle phases in women, pregnancy andet al.).
However, it is necessary to distinguish between the pathological and the so-called physiological leukocytosis when white blood cells to temporarily increase after eating, bathing in hot or cold water, after considerable physical exertion, before menstruation or during pregnancy.
That is why it is always advisable to give blood in the morning on an empty stomach to have passed at least 8 of the last meal time - 12 hours.In addition, refrain before delivery of analyzes of exercise, Kneipp run and try not to be nervous, since the tension and stress can significantly distort the analysis.
Norma leukocytes in the blood
|in day 1 - 8.5 - 24.5 x 109 per liter||from 7 to 12 years - 4.5 -10 x 109|
|1month - 6,5 - 13,8 x 109||from 13 to 15 years - 4,3 - 9,5 x 109|
|6 months - 5,5 - 12.5 x 109||in adult women - 4 - 9 x 109|
|year - 6 - 12 x 109||adult male - 4 -9 x 109|
|from 1 to 6 years old - 5 - 12 x 109||in pregnancy - up to 15 x 109|
Determination of the number of white blood cells is carried out upon delivery blood count (KLA):
- Elevated white blood cells (leukocytosis) usually indicate the presence in the body which - any communicable diseases (pneumonia, otitis media, bronchitis, meningitis, etc.), suppuration or inflammation of various localization (pleura, abdominal subcutaneous fat).
- If leukocyte reduced (leukopenia), it is usually talking about a low immunity and the need to seek the cause of the oppression of their formation in the bone marrow.
most common cause of low white blood cells are:
- effects of radiation (radiation sickness),
- anemia with deficiency of vitamin B12,
- infectious diseases, cancer metastasis to the bone marrow,
- initial stages of leukemia,
- receptioncertain medications.
Increased leukocyte content in pregnancy, especially in the second half, it is physiological and due to their accumulation in the lining of the uterus to protect the developing fetus from getting infections and uterine function to prepare for future delivery.
However, this figure should not exceed 15 x 109 per liter and is regularly monitored by the attending physician, so as not to miss the beginning of the dangerous inflammation.In addition to the blood test, the expectant mother should regularly take urine and swab from the vagina to the white blood cells.
leukocytic hemogram ^
Changing the number of leukocytes in the blood is above or below the norm is equally serious symptom and requires further research.Thus, the identification of the causes of their pathological increase is necessary to determine the cause of the disease, and the critical reduction (agranulocytosis) can lead to severe vulnerability and insecurity of the body in front of the most common infections.
By reducing or increasing the white blood cells important to know by which kind of happened.Blood with extensive leukocyte formula allows you to get the most accurate picture of the condition of blood - to see the possible complications developing pathological processes and predict outcomes.
Leukocyte formula shows the percentage of all 5 types of white blood cells in the blood serum and to evaluate the body's ability to fight infections, to identify the severity of allergies and parasites, to predict the adverse effects of certain medications, monitor and evaluate the impact of chemotherapy on the immune response to viral infections.
Norma leukocytes in urine and swab from the vagina ^
In a healthy person the number of white blood cells in the urine is very small and is - for women to 5 men and 3 in the field of view;when Nechiporenko urine test delivery can be up to 4000 in 1 ml.
excessive increase in the number of leukocytes in urine greater than 60 in the field of vision, called leukocyturia usually shows inflammatory diseases of the kidneys (pyelonephritis), urinary tract and prostate (cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis) or genitals (thrush, coleitis).
If in the urogenital system organs begins pyo - inflammatory process, it already indicates pyuria development, in which the patient's condition worsens - the body temperature rises, there are frequent and painful urination (for a small discharge of urine), and pain in the arealoin.
When pyuria not only multiplied the number of white blood cells in the urine, but there are visible to the naked eye specks of pus in the form of flakes and fibers.In addition, the urine becomes cloudy greenish color and odor.
Leucocytes in a smear from the vagina
The presence of white blood cells in the smear can say the same thing as the presence in the urine - a healthy woman are observed in single quantities.Increasing their number up to tens and hundreds of indicating the presence of infection in the vagina (thrush, vaginitis or vaginitis) and the need to start treatment.Moreover, the number of leukocytes directly indicates the intensity of the process - the more, the more infection.
most dangerous vaginal infection during pregnancy, the expectant mother must therefore regularly check the presence of leukocytes in the smear, because they are the first indicator of the beginning of the inflammatory process, helping the time to begin appropriate treatment and protect yourself and your baby from a variety of complications.
I recommend you watch the video about the role of white blood cells in the body and blood leukocyte decoding formula: