platelets - platelets are small, produced in the cells of the bone marrow and play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis.
Blood Platelets: their role in the organism ^
It depends on the preservation of blood platelets in a liquid state, dissolving the formed clots and the protection of the blood vessel walls from damage.
Along with red blood cells and white blood cells, platelets are formless (cellular) blood components and are an important part of laboratory research.
platelet study is part of an obligatory general clinical blood test and evaluates its clotting, which determines the body's ability to cope with the bleeding and save lives in case of possible blood loss.
platelets in the blood rate in children and adults ^
Norma platelets in the blood is an indicator of healthy hematopoiesis.Term life of platelets is small - they do not live more than 7 - 10 days and require constant updating.Therefore, in the blood of a healthy person is a continuous process of recycling old platelets (cells in liver and spleen) and the formation of new ones.
When damaged blood vessels platelets are activated and immediately sent to the site of damage - they are literally glued to each other and to the vessel wall, creating a clot (thrombus) that stops bleeding.
If the balance between the production of new cells and the destruction of the waste for some - that reason is disturbed, there are diseases - increased bleeding, or conversely, the tendency to thrombosis, which is equally dangerous.
norm in blood platelets:
|adults||180 - 320 * 109 / L|
|in pregnant||150 - 380 * 109 / L|
|in||100 newborns -420 * 109 / l|
|in children older than 1 year||180 - 320 * 109 / l|
women platelet rate may decline slightly during menstruation, due to the physiological blood loss, however, isreduction should not be constant.A slight decrease (up to 150 * 109 / l) platelet counts may occur during pregnancy due to a sharp increase in the volume of blood and malnutrition pregnant, causing the body does not have time to produce them in the required quantity.
If platelets dropped (below 150 * 109 / L) was not due to pregnancy, menstruation or other blood loss and wear resistant nature, this is a serious cause for treatment to the doctor, as it may develop thrombocytopenia.
Thrombocytopenia Causes, Symptoms and Treatment ^
Thrombocytopenia - a reduction in the number of platelets in the blood below normal, leading to disruption of blood clotting and excessive bleeding due to excessive "liquid" of blood.This condition presents a real threat to public health, as the walls of vessels lose their elasticity, become too brittle, fragile and at risk of internal bleeding.
low platelet count may be suspected without laboratory analysis, according to some external characteristics.If you:
- easily bruises for no apparent mechanical effects,
- bleeding gums,
- often open nasal or intestinal bleeding,
- too abundant and prolonged menstruation,
- body appear specific melkotochechnye rashes,
- longIt stops the blood from minor cuts or removal of teeth,
all the possible symptoms of thrombocytopenia.
main causes of thrombocytopenia:
- allergies - occur at drug allergies (allergic thrombocytopenia);
- autoimmune - development of antiplatelet antibodies (autoimmune thrombocytopenia);
- symptomatic - caused by hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism), infections, intoxication (symptomatic thrombocytopenia);
- transimmunnye - occur when the penetration of autoimmune antibodies through the placenta to the fetus from the sick mother;
- vitamin B12-deficiency anemia or deficiency of folic acid.
Despite the fact that, in this pathology, usually no malaise and pain, treatment of thrombocytopenia necessary as the disease can cause dangerous bleeding of internal organs, including brain hemorrhage.
Treatment starts with determining the causes of disease in order to avoid secondary thrombocytopenia requiring treatment of the underlying disease.However, in the presence of a pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome (elevated subcutaneous hemorrhages and bleeding of mucous membranes), thrombocytopenia should be treated as the underlying disease.
Currently, the following types of treatment:
- glucocorticosteroid hormone therapy,
- intravenous immunoglobulin injections,
- introduction of D-Rh serum,
- transfusion of donor platelet mass.
In the absence of the effect of drug therapy, or when the glucocorticosteroid hormones produce unstable results, the patient offer a splenectomy (removal of the spleen).After removal of the spleen, the main hematopoietic organ, 75% of patients there is complete recovery.
thrombocytopenia Patients should be under constant supervision of a doctor - hematologist and avoid actions that cause bleeding or reinforcing:
- In particular, you should avoid activities vysokotravmatichnymi sports;
- refuse alcohol, home preservation and dishes containing vinegar;
- Do not take aspirin, analgin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in violation of platelet function.
- The power should be sufficient amount of food with vitamins C, A and P, in particular, the tendency to frequent nosebleeds.
Thrombocytosis causes and treatment ^
Thrombocytosis - is an increase in the number of platelets in the blood, leading to an increased thrombosis and occlusion of blood vessels.
Thrombocytosis is a primary and secondary (symptomatic).Primary disorders occur as a result of the hematological function of bone marrow stem cells, causing the blood platelet count increased dramatically.Diagnosed in most cases random, and in the analysis of blood has no specific symptoms except headaches inherent in a large number of diseases.
cause of secondary thrombocytosis often:
- removal of the spleen,
- malignant tumors,
- haematological disorders (most often iron deficiency),
- certain medications.
For correct diagnosis, with the primary detection of elevated levels of platelets, it is recommended to conduct the following studies:
- analysis of blood platelets - to produce three times with an interval of 3-5 days;
- serum ferritin and serum iron;
- quantitative study of C-reactive protein;
- pelvic ultrasound and the abdominal cavity;
- consulting gynecologist or urologist.
With a slight increase in platelet count (up to 500 * 109 / L) to lower their level is quite possible without drugs, using proper nutrition and diet.Patients with thrombocytosis should clearly know what foods are useful to them, and which may exacerbate the condition.
Diet at elevated platelets
- The daily menu should be present blood-thinning products - olive oil and flaxseed oil, fish oil, lemon, apple cider vinegar, tomato juice, sour berries, onions and garlic.
- According to medical studies, regular use of garlic in food can not only thin out the blood, but also half-sucked existing clots.
- also useful products containing magnesium, which prevents the formation of clots in the blood.
- Also very important is the correct drinking regime, because the blood is 90% water.When there is insufficient use of water (rate 2 - 2.5 liters per day), the body is dehydrated, blood vessels constrict and the blood thickens.
- Besides water, green tea is beneficial and natural juices from vegetables, fruits, and sour grapes.
- Prohibited products, thickening the blood, are bananas, mango, lentils, wild rose, walnuts, black chokeberry, pomegranate.
- increase the viscosity of blood alcohol, smoking, and many medicines, in particular contraceptives, diuretics and hormones, so you need to give up bad habits and do not use drugs unless absolutely necessary.
When existing varices or thrombophlebitis good revitalizing effect gives a mixture of garlic, onion, lemon and honey (the proportion of 100 g: 200 g: 50 g: 100 g), taken 3 times a day for 1 teaspoon.Typically, shortly after the power ordering occurs a significant improvement in disease.
If the increase in platelet critical (greater than twice the rate or more) or to normalize their levels with the help of proper nutrition and natural remedies can not, the doctor will select the necessary medicines that reduce blood clotting and reduce the formation of platelets to normal values.
also possible treatment of folk remedies - infusions and decoctions of medicinal plants, but as thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia are the opposite of disease, it can carry out only under strict medical supervision.It is important to understand that herbs - it is a serious drug and the wrong choice can significantly aggravate the situation.
Remember that, in patients who do not receive timely treatment of thrombocytosis, the disease will steadily make progress with the further increase in the number of platelets, so do not take your health lightly and do not risk needlessly.
Modern methods of treatment under the supervision of a doctor - hematologist allow patients to live a normal full life.
In conclusion, I recommend you watch informative video on platelets and other elements of blood: