Principles of pharmacological treatment of transient ischemic attack

Transient ischemic attack - an acute process of cerebral circulation, it differs from a stroke is the reversibility of the pathological process.Some neurologists experts call this phenomenon mini-strokes.If the state does not change for at least 24 hours, or irreversible disorders, the patient is diagnosed with "stroke".

How to recognize a transient ischemic attack?

main symptoms of transient ischemic attacks occur, depending on the area of ​​the brain involved in the process.The blood supply of the body is carried out by two pools of vascular - carotid and vertebrobasilar.

carotid is formed of two carotid arteries and is responsible for the circulation of the brain hemispheres.As is known, the structure of the central nervous system have control over the processes related to reading, speaking, writing, sensitivity, motor activity.

vertebrobasilar pool consists of two vertebral arteries, it nourishes the brain stem, which is responsible for the most vital functions - breathing, sight, taste, smell, e

tc.

If violations relate to vertebrobasilar basin, the patient observed the following characteristics:.

  1. severe dizziness that does not go with a change in body position, headache in the occipital overgrown, nausea and vomiting;
  2. lack of coordination, precision movements;
  3. tremor of the extremities;
  4. eye movement disorders, strabismus or nystagmus, partial or complete loss of vision;
  5. change of respiratory movements, respiratory arrhythmia, prolonged pause between breaths;
  6. memory loss.

Change of blood flow or its termination in the carotid accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • paresis and paralysis of various parts of the body;
  • paresis of half of the face with symmetry breaking (below);
  • various changes the function of speech (aphasia - a lack of understanding of what others say, dysarthria - blurred pronunciation of words, or the complete absence of speech in a patient);
  • reduction or disappearance of intellectual skills (inability to count, the inability to determine the time);
  • violation reading, writing.

Why there is poor circulation in the vessels of the brain?

Causes of transient ischemic attack are the same as that in the development of stroke:

  • Progressive atherosclerosis.The deposition of cholesterol plaque narrows the lumen of the vessel, causing problems with blood flow.Sometimes the plaque can break off and with the blood flow falls in a narrow part of the channel, blocking blood flow completely.
  • No less common cause of disease is thrombosis.Blood clots are formed in the cavity of the heart muscle during arrhythmias, valvular defects, myocardial infarction, endocarditis.
  • Sometimes violation of normal blood flow caused by clamping of the arteries.This occurs in patients with severe osteochondrosis or cervical condition after surgery on the carotid arteries.
  • With a sharp drop in pressure decreases the blood flow rate through the vessels, which causes transient changes (characteristic symptom of Takayasu's disease).
  • cause of transient ischemic attack are sometimes pathological processes in the body that contribute to blood clots (bleeding and coagulopathy angiopathy) as well as endocrine pathology, promoting change in the structure of the vascular wall (diabetes).To promote the emergence of
  • microstroke are congenital vascular changes in the brain structure (hypoplasia or aplasia).

at risk for the disease are overweight people who abuse alcohol and smoking on oral contraceptives, sedentary!

What can be done?

condition of the patient with such disease can turn into a stroke, so the treatment of transient ischemic attack is carried out in the same way as the events in stroke.

First of all, the patient requires emergency hospitalization in the intensive care unit.There the patient will observe several specialists: a neurologist, cardiologist, ophthalmologist, therapist.

  1. The use of thrombolytics.The drugs of this series is aimed at dissolving the blood clot that blocked artery.This method has its drawbacks.For example, its use is contraindicated if after the first signs of transient attacks took more than three hours.Further, side effect of drugs can be a cerebral or gastrointestinal hemorrhage.Therefore, treatment should be done before the CT scan of the brain to rule out hemorrhagic stroke.
  2. pressure reduction.Antihypertensive agents can not be used on the first day after admission of the patient to the hospital, as this may worsen his condition.
  3. Optimization of rheological properties of blood.For this purpose, appointed anticoagulants and aggregation inhibitors.When blood clots are shown intravenous infusion solutions.
  4. Neuroprotection and restoration of cells and neuronal metabolism.The patient with transient ischemic attack prescribe drugs to speed recovery and improve trophic processes in the brain cells.
  5. normalization of heart rate.In the presence of arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities are used antiarrhythmics.

Transient ischemic attack is a harbinger of stroke.Therefore, the appearance of even minor symptoms should seek immediate medical help!

prevent dangerous

In order to prevent an acute violation of cerebral circulation, transient ischemic attack and stroke, need timely prevention.It is subject to the following recommendations:

  • Power must be complete with a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals.It is to limit consumption of foods high in cholesterol.
  • Early treatment of arrhythmia, diabetes, hypertension, thrombophlebitis.
  • Quitting smoking and alcohol consumption, body weight loss.Permanent
  • statins (drugs which prevent the formation of sclerotic plaques and reduce the amount of cholesterol in the body).
  • surgical correction to restore arterial lumen.
  • receiving means to prevent blood clots.

The transient ischemic attack may end up?

Emergency hospitalization and adequate treatment in some cases, help to cope with neurological disorders that allows the patient to return to his usual life.

However, the effects of a transient ischemic attack can be very heavy.If you can not provide a full and timely support, the patient developed a stroke with severe neurological symptoms.The pathological process manifests itself in the form of the development of paralysis (individual limbs or the entire body), in speech and cognitive impairment, and can lead to death.

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