Postnatal malnutrition - chronic disorder purchased power due to insufficient intake or impaired absorption of nutrients, is characterized by a decrease in body weight, occurs in children up to two years, usually in the first year of life.
Factors that contribute to postnatal malnutrition:
- nutritional - hypogalactia, wrong habit of sucking in a child due to the flat shape of the nipple or the use of pacifiers, the late introduction of complementary foods (after 6 months), improper introduction of complementary foods (with juice).
- infectious (intestinal infections, acute respiratory infections)
- malformations (cleft lip and palate, megacolon, pyloric stenosis)
- constitutional features
- defects childcare
- toxicity (hypervitaminosis D)
- birth traumaCNS
- endocrine pathology (diabetes, congenital adrenal hyperplasia)
clinical picture of postnatal malnutrition
disease clinic is different depending on the degree, postnatal malnutrition can be of three degrees.
- I degree of malnutrition characterized by decreased body weight by 10 to 20% of normal, a decrease in the thickness of subcutaneous fat on the entire body except the face, especially thinning of the subcutaneous fat layer in the stomach.The skin is pale, with reduced tissue turgor.The growth and development of the child does not fall behind.The state of health of the child is satisfactory, it may sometimes be sleep disturbances, anxiety.Muscle tone is reduced.Stool and urine are not violated.
- II degree malnutrition, characterized by decreased body weight by 20 to 30% of the norm, subcutaneous fat disappears on his stomach and chest, the face becomes thinner and konechnostyah.Rebenok behind in growth and psychomotor development.Appears physical inactivity, weakness, irritability, sleep disturbances, decreased appetite.The skin is pale, sharply reduced turgor, children easily overheated and supercooled.Reduced immunity.On examination revealed muffled tones of the heart and liver enlargement.Chair unstable, constipation alternating with diarrhea.Often there is "an empty stool" - a dark, dense, dry with a very unpleasant odor.In a laboratory study revealed anemia, hypoproteinemia, reduced activity of digestive enzymes.
- III degree of wasting (atrophy), is characterized by the depletion of the child and the weight loss of more than 30% of normal, and the lack of subcutaneous fat, can sometimes persist a very thin layer on the cheeks.Delayed growth and development is very marked.There are severe weakness, lethargy, response to external stimuli is absent or very weak.Large fontanelle and eyeballs sink.Mucous membranes dry, bright red.Skinfold not cracked down, the skin is dry and pale with a grayish tinge.Muscle atrophy, increased muscle tone.Breathing shallow, often abnormal, apnea may occur.Heart sounds dull, pressure is lowered.Bloating, appears "empty calories."Urine is not enough.The body temperature is lowered sharply reduced immunity.
Methods of diagnosis of postnatal malnutrition
- rank power
- Inspection - estimate of the thickness of subcutaneous fat, skin, auscultation, palpation
- mass index calculation body
- Laboratory studies
Methods of treatment of postnatal malnutrition
- Dietotherapy, the organization of proper care for the child, the elimination of vitamin A deficiency and metabolic disorders
- When hypogalactia - drug increases lactation, the introduction of high-energy compounds in the diet of a child
- Remediation of foci of infection
- restorative treatments, massage, exercise therapy
- When atrophy parenteral nutrition, stimulantshormones