retarded is the weakest degree of manifestation of mental retardation, which develops due to mental retardation or organic lesions of the fetal brain.
symptoms of retardation at a low degree of development hardly contribute to the clear differences from the sick child healthy.Not broken mechanical memory and emotional and volitional, but the patient's attention is very difficult to focus on a particular object, so storage is slow and unstable.
Patients children the predominant type of thinking is particularly descriptive, but the ability to think abstractly is almost lost, so the children is difficult to capture the logical relations, concepts such as time, space, etc.Debility often accompanied by disturbances of speech activity.
There are three groups of etiological factors contributing to the development of mental retardation in the degree of retardation, namely:
- Hereditary causes of retardation, they are deviations in the development of the generative cells of the parents.
- Intrauterine fetal damage due to hormonal disturbances in the mother's body, the body's defeat rubella and other viral pathologies.
- Negative factors in the perinatal period and the first three years of life - or neonatal asphyxia.Birth injuries, fetal and maternal conflict in Rh factor, head injuries in early childhood, childhood infectious diseases.
diseases With the defeat of this pathology appear the following signs of retardation in children:
- Dementia makes itself felt through the underdevelopment of cognitive processes.However, this factor includes the patient as a whole person - mind deteriorates, intellect, will, emotional sphere, speech, motor skills, memory, attention, and perception of the world.
- main role in the totality of psychic development defects belong to the impossibility of building a normal communication and insufficient development of the ability to think abstractly.
- Vocabulary patient differs scarcity, he uses basic phrases that builds illiterate.
- Memory and attention are attenuated, reduced level of motivation for a particular activity and initiatives.
- Physical development also occurs with delays.
retardation can be divided into several forms of flow:
- Easy debility.
- Moderate debility.
- Severe debility.
to detect form of the disease is made a full clinical examination, and the degree of formation of the pathology in this case is related to the diagnosed form.
disease Diagnosis Diagnosis
debility in the first year of life is based on a set of lag symptoms, both physical and in mental terms.Diagnosis is a child, if it at an early age can not fix your gaze on one point does not start on their own to keep your head, does not sit until the age of one year, does not respond to sound, not smiling when talking to him.
In the second year of life, the disease manifests itself insufficient development of speech and motor skills, as well as reluctance to explore the world around them.The child refuses to repeat the manipulation of adult and does not understand it when it is accessed.At preschool age mild form of retardation manifested inability to self-service, poor learning disabilities and the prevalence of primitive emotions.
Treatment Treatment of mental retardation in the retardation phase is related to the cause of its development and is only symptomatic.In order to improve the metabolic processes patients assigned to use glutamic acid, vitamin organized.To reduce the rates of intracranial pressure infusions are magnesia, prescribed course of a glycerol.
With the development of strong retardation retardation treatment is carried out with the help of stimulants - antipsychotics or anticonvulsants, depending on the clinical symptoms.
The sooner treatment is started, the better will be the results from it.Is important correctional treatment and educational therapy, which includes patient education of children and adolescents in institutions.
total patronage worldwide system that controls the physical and mental development of children from birth to school has been developed for the timely diagnosis of various degrees of pathology.
Oligophrenia treatable only if the reasons for the formation of metabolic diseases in which the child is assigned medication for the purpose of metabolic regulation.The effectiveness of treatment depends entirely on the susceptibility of the child's body.
In other forms of pathology can be organized only adjuvant treatment with amino acids, vitamin complexes, drugs to lower intracranial pressure and blood flow in the brain activation.
In order to compensate for deviations of the importance given to the employment and training of medical and educational activities.Along with the health authorities in the rehabilitation oligophrenics great attention is paid to training in the auxiliary boarding schools, workshops, etc.
prevention of disease in the majority of cases of this disease prevention is inseparable from the treatment process.Possibilities of primary prevention is currently significantly increased through genetic developments.
In many prevention of mental retardation is related to the conduct of the necessary screening of pregnant women for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, a blood Rh factor, etc.
Prevention congenital form of syphilis and related mental retardation in the degree of retardation is to prevent infection and safe treatment of pregnant women with syphilis.
also prevention methods include improving the process of childbirth and pregnancy.
an important role in the prevention of mental retardation in young children and infants playing prevent infection and injury.Corrective and pedagogical treatment is very important to overcome the complications and severe mental retardation flow.The main importance is attached to welfare activity, labor or professional training device, which should be linked with the clinical manifestations and age of the patient group.Thus, the education of children is carried out, as well as a professional device adults.
Prophylactic treatment of other types of mental retardation and mental retardation in most cases depends on the necessary social measures, which involve improving the environment and educational activities.