Oligophrenia retardation in phase is the weakest degree of mental retardation, which is influenced by developmental delay or an organic brain damage in the fetus.
Oligophrenia considered a congenital disease, but it can be acquired in the first years of a child's life.The main reasons for the development of the disease can be classified into three groups:
- Genetic factors.
- Factors affecting the development of the fetus in the womb - alcohol abuse and illness of the mother, the use of drugs during pregnancy, a negative impact on the fetus.
- hard to pass childbirth and child disease at an early age - birth injuries, head injuries, immunological incompatibility between the fetus and mother's tissues.
Despite the high degree of knowledge of etiological factors of the disease, experts have not been removed completely install all the causes mental retardation in the degree of retardation of disease.
Clinical signs of disease
Oligophrenia in moderate degree of retardation is characterized by manifesta
Often deviations in mental development are felt immediately, but gradually, sometimes they appear only in the early school years.At preschool age pathology manifested by lack of emotional response, speech development gap, a weak interest in the outside world, inability to build communication with peers, inability to identify the specific effects and symptoms.
for patients with this pathology in adolescence and older age characterized by the development of personality immaturity, inability to self-important decision-making and impulsivity actions.
Oligophrenia in mild retardation is characterized by the following clinical manifestations:
- defective perception of the picture of the world, absent-mindedness, poor memory and low ability of logical thinking;
- defective development of the moral and intellectual emotions, inadequate response to the events taking place around the lack of taking the initiative;
- lack of targeted action;
- serious delay in psychological development, and poor intelligence quotient.
Oligophrenic in the retardation phase from childhood shows a lag in the development later than other children begin to speak, to walk.Phrase voice stream is formed only three - four years, often accompanied by abnormalities of articulation.
Some people come to study in ordinary schools, so unable to comprehend even simple training material.But at the same time good mechanical memory, assiduity child, as well as teachers perseverance allow for some patients successfully learn the curriculum in elementary school, but with training in high school they handle not.In this regard, many remain in the second year of study, so experts recommend giving these children in special schools.
Patients with mental retardation can capture any type of work, usually unskilled labor activity as the work is done mechanically in accordance with the instinct of imitation.The terms of the interests of the patients is very narrow.They mainly focus on satisfying their physiological needs and the need for entertainment, they are not interested in collective life, much less attach importance to abstract events and issues.
Even with the development of a satisfactory level of reading skill Oligophrenic virtually no attention to the reading of books, prefer visiting a movie or TV viewing.The choice of programs or movies by accident.Usually it is adventure or children's movies.
People with mental retardation in the retardation phase, retain the ability to generalize the experience, they are able to carry out simple practical conclusions and make inferences from them.In certain situations, based on the lessons learned, patients can be proactive and focus their actions.For retardation is characterized by the predominance of concrete-shaped thinking.
retardation depending on the depth of destruction of the human psyche to classify a deep, medium and light or moderate degree of development.
process of treating disease
specialized treatment for mental retardation was not designed as a pathology not amenable to any treatment, unless it is related to the violation of the metabolic processes in the body.The rule of thumb that can reduce the severity of the disease - is the patronage of physical and mental health.
First of all it must implement the parents.But in addition to parental care in any country there are special facilities for children with mental disabilities, in which is made the maximum possible adaptation of the sick child to life in a modern society.Typically, classes are organized according to the age group of the child, then the children continue the educational process in special schools.
At any stage of the development of mental retardation in the form of child retardation appointed taking medicines, correcting metabolic processes, as well as vitamin therapy, amino acids and drugs that improve blood flow in the brain and intracranial pressure stabilizing.
Any preventive measures for the prevention of progression of mental retardation are classified into primary and secondary funds.The primary methods include: diagnosis of abnormalities of the central nervous system of the fetus, which makes it possible to prevent the birth of a child with mental pathologies, the implementation of measures for future maternal health and the prevention of infections and their injury to the baby during delivery.
Secondary prevention activities involve conducting dementia diagnosis and effective treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with mental retardation.Establishing the diagnosis and subsequent treatment - it is a question of medicine, but the rehabilitation of patients - a full range of preventive measures, the implementation of the majority of which presupposes the existence of social security and material support from the state.
projections of the disease are totally dependent on the degree of mental retardation and the shape of the flow.For most oligophrenics in the degree of retardation remains possible social adaptation, but with more advanced stages of mental retardation outlook remains unsatisfactory