cerebral hematoma - a pathology that can threaten the lives of patients, so the appearance of this condition requires immediate intervention on the part of physicians, because only in this case it is possible to prevent the occurrence of complications.
human brain located in the skull and is surrounded by a special protective liquid, which warns him injury.But there are times when the impact force is so great that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can not fully protect the brain, which greatly shaken and can strike the walls of the skull, resulting in the development of a variety of brain injuries.
This may be damaged blood vessels, both extending in the brain and blood vessels, which are located between the skull and the brain matter, resulting in developing brain and bruising.
When the first symptoms of a brain hematoma should immediately contact the medical facility, because such injuries are a collection of blood, compressing brain tissue, causing the appropriate clinic.In some cases, it formed a
cause of intracerebral hemorrhage is a head injury, which can be obtained, for example, in a car accident, though it must be said that in some cases, this pathology can develop when striking his head, seemingly insignificant at first glance.Particularly well this regularity is observed in the elderly - they have developed a hematoma of the brain often even with minor bumps in the head.Among the precipitating factors include:
- vascular injury, leading to arteriovenous malformation and to aneurysms;
- permanent increase in blood pressure;
- neurological pathology;
- liver disease;
- receiving anticoagulants;
- autoimmune disorders in the body;
- blood diseases in which disturbed her normal clotting - hemophilia, leukemia, a specific type of anemia - a form of sickle cell;
- cerebral hematoma in infants often becomes a consequence of complications in childbirth and trauma during the passage of female birth canal.
Types of hematoma in the brain
The disease is of three kinds: subdural, epidural and intracerebral, which is the accumulation of blood directly into the brain tissue.Subdural hematoma, which occurs at the rupture of blood vessels (veins in most cases) is localized between the lining of the brain and is considered a serious setback, potentially life-threatening cases.Between two sheets of the meninges, most often between the hard and soft forms localized accumulation of blood - it shows a pronounced and progressive extinction of consciousness.
Among the population there are several risk groups, who often develop this type of disease - these are people who abuse aspirin, anticoagulants, or taking a long drink alcohol in excess.I must say that the brain subdural hematoma mozgav most cases recorded in very young patients and those who have reached old age.
Epidural hematoma is often recorded in children and adolescents is characterized by high mortality in late of medical care.Often patients while still conscious, but are sleepy or in a coma.With the variety of the disease the blood that accumulates between the skull and dura, greatly compresses the brain tissue, and therefore requires immediate treatment.
intracerebral hematoma (intraparenchymal form) occurs when blood penetration into the brain tissue and their gradual impregnation.With this hematoma white matter is damaged, broken nerve connection, namely the affected axons, responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses from the brain to the executive bodies, so the nerve cells in different parts of the body are not able to interact - violated the integrity of the nervous regulation of all processes in the body.
main clinical symptoms of intracranial hematomas
clinical picture of lesions can occur immediately after head injury or some time after this - which is why the patient should be inspected for suspected intracranial hematoma, not only immediately after the injury, but after a while afterwards.With the accumulation of blood pressure occurs in the formation of the structure of the brain, whose strength increases progressively, hence the development of the following complaints:
- headache, accompanied by nausea, vomiting can also be;
- victims drowsy, their minds are confused;
- in patients with impaired speech, they generally can not talk in some cases;
- difference observed pupil size;
- in the limbs of one side of the body the patient feels a sharp weakness.
If the brain accumulates a significant amount of blood, it leads to the development of lethargy, convulsions and coma.I must say that the signs of a brain hematoma can occur at once, so you need to carefully monitor the physical, mental, and emotional state of patients after a head injury of any force.
Regardless of the type of hematoma, the patient needs careful care from the medical staff.The treatment method is determined based on the magnitude of the disease, the severity of clinical signs and condition of patients after CT and MRI.
So if hematoma small in size and do not cause any symptoms in patients, the prescribed diuretics and corticosteroids, which allows you to control brain swelling.Hematoma of this type are not removed.But, unfortunately, quite often the treatment of brain hematomas include operational methods.Type of procedure depends on the nature of the hematoma.
If the blood is localized in one place and not too quickly folds can be made a special hole in the skull through which the pathological mass manages to suck.For large amounts of hematomas shown holding a trepanation of the skull, where the hematoma can be removed completely.Some cases carried out trepanation and clipping damaged vessels.Simultaneously resuscitation and maintain a state of vital body functions.
consequences of brain hematoma can be very diverse.Most often it develops fatigue - chronic fatigue, as well as increased sensitivity to a change in the weather (especially atmospheric pressure).There irritability or tearfulness.Less commonly, there may be neurosis and psychosis, dementia and traumatic, so we need time to seek medical help, even if immediately after the trauma victim feels good.