Time of anaphylactic shock varies from a few seconds to several hours.At the heart of the development of this allergic reaction is immediate type hypersensitivity.Severity depends rarely the mode of administration of the allergen, although larger doses largely worsen the human condition.Such a reaction is strictly individual for each and can be shown to absolutely any foreign agent, trapped in the body.
Anaphylaxis: symptoms may be diverse, but characteristic features can be considered deterioration of the central and peripheral circulation.Generally, a painful shock, toxic shock, and any other accompanying these main symptoms.
first aid in anaphylactic shock
Before the arrival of medical personnel is important to provide first aid in order to prevent the development of various complications.That also includes emergency care in anaphylactic shock?
- patient should be put on a level surface.
- head was put to one side.
- To prevent the tongue in the throat must be some way to fix the lower jaw.
- If you have dental implants, inserted, then as far as possible to remove them.
- C, filled with warm water in order to improve blood circulation to the feet of the victim can make a hot water bottle or bottles.
- With the development of the reaction to the introduction of the drug intravenously - tourniquet above the injection site a little pinch or veins and arteries improvised means.
first qualified assistance in anaphylactic shock
Assistance in anaphylactic shock must be conducted in full health worker.To this end, the following actions are performed:
1.Osnovnye drug of choice is adrenaline 0.1%.(In some cases, can be found 0.18% Epinephrine solution or solution).It is important to enter as soon as possible.
any route of administration: subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, and, best of all, intravenous.The initial dose is 0.3-0.5 ml.Further it is possible to introduce, if necessary 1-1.5 ml.In case of overdose Adrenaline may worsen the patient's condition, asmetabolites of the drug block the adrenergic receptors.Symptoms of overdose may be considered as an increase in heart rate or individual muscle twitch convulsive character.
With much lower blood pressure may be an increase in administration.
2.Sledom glucocorticoids administered the adrenaline.It is important to know that the dosage several times during anaphylactic shock relieving exceeds the administration of these drugs in the treatment of arthritis or other diseases.The effect of glucocorticoids, and several delayed there a few minutes, lasts up to four hours.
drug and its dosage:
- Methylprednisolone - 500 mg,
- dexamethasone - 20 mg,
- Prednisolone - 150 mg.
With little effect of the treatment a dosage increase is allowed.
3.Neotlozhnaya assistance in anaphylactic shock involves administering antihistamines that do not lower blood pressure and less themselves are potential allergens.These include the following drugs:
- diphenhydramine 1% - 1-2 ml,
- Suprastin Chloropyramine or 2% - 2 ml,
- Tavegil Clemastine, or 0.1% - 2 ml.
Promethazine and other phenothiazine derivatives entered is not recommended for the above reasons.Previously used chloride and calcium gluconate solution is not only inefficient, but also in a sense of the disease worsens.
4.Pri accession symptoms of bronchospasm or pulmonary edema (shortness of breath) slowly introduced eufillin 2.4% solution - 10 ml.
In any health care facility to assist in anaphylactic shock should be a special kit, equipped with all necessary equipment and drugs.
Anaphylactic shock: first aid kit first aid kit
The aid includes all of the above products except for Adrenaline, becauseit must be refrigerated.In addition there is a packing syringes, needles, 0.9% sodium chloride solution in the vial and ampoules, possible peripheral catheter and plaster.
Anaphylaxis: First aid is provided in conjunction with the use of oxygen inhalation and continuous intravenous administration of sodium chloride.