Gangrene is necrosis of a certain area of the body or bodies, in which the affected area become characteristic color - from blue-brown to black.This pathology develops at the termination of oxygen supply to tissues that occurs most often in the most remote areas of the body from the heart.
So, gangrene of the lower limbs develops most often in which most often affects the toes.In addition, the disease can develop localized in areas with impaired local blood circulation, for example, it refers to the heart or the lung tissue in the development of a heart attack.
Causes of this disease can be internal and external.Among the external factors, which often provoke the development of gangrene, can be distinguished:
- mechanical injuries - injuries that accompany tissue injury, not only, but also vessels and nerves;
- bedsores, which are responsible for the rapid development of symptoms;
- external provoking factors also influence physical agents, such as high or low temperatures, which leads to the development of burns or frostbite, and ionizing radiation;
- impact of chemicals (acids, alkalis, phosphorus or arsenic).
Internal factors of the disease may include any pathological processes that occur in violation of proper nutrition of tissues.Most of these processes develop in damaged blood vessels, which are accompanied by breach of the integrity of anatomical changes or spasm that frequently occurs in atherosclerosis, and may not only become a cause gangrene, and thrombosis and infarctions.
It is worth noting that the disease can develop without the participation of microorganisms.Then talk about the aseptic form of the disease.If, however, in the pathogenesis of the lesions involved anaerobic flora that develops septic (putrid) gangrene of the lower extremities.
clinical picture of the disease
There are dry, damp and gas gangrene.Sometimes it can develop a special form of destruction - unauthorized gangrene of fingers or toes, which develops when wearing tight shoes, feet soaking or after removal of the nail, which is rooted in the surrounding tissue.It is worth noting that in the last hospital has developed gangrene - a special form of the disease which occurred in cases where a large number of patients with significant wounds were raw and small rooms with low temperatures and insufficient intake of fresh air.
I must say that the symptoms depend on the form of the disease.Dry gangrene develops in the sudden cessation of blood flow to the tissues in which they dry.In the necrotic tissue putrid infection misses.
Affected tissues shrivel and compacted, reduced in volume, due to the collapse of the blood cells and clotting proteins.Necrotic area becomes dark brown or black color - the so-called mummification.
When the blood flow there is a sharp pain, limb with pale and becomes cold to the touch, heart rate and sensitivity of the skin in the affected areas disappear.Over time, the area between the healthy and the sick plot develops reactive inflammation.Most often occurs suhayagangrena feet and tip of the nose and ears, especially when chemical burns or frostbite.
If ingested putrid infection, dry gangrene goes into the wet form in the dead tissue.Tissues become gray-brown color, swell and increase in volume, soften and become putrid odor.Between healthy and diseased tissue forms a clear boundary.
necrotic tissue are rejected, then the defect is formed, which later forms a scar.It should be noted that wet gangrene of the lower limbs may move into a dry form.
With the weakening of the body's pathological process quickly spread to healthy tissue, and decomposition products into the blood, causing symptoms of severe intoxication.In severe cases, may develop sepsis, most often seen in patients who have a concomitant diabetes.
initial stage of the disease, caused by anaerobic bacteria, is characterized by pain and swelling in the area of contact with pathogens.Subsequently, the wound stands out dark-colored liquid with an unpleasant odor.The affected tissues are destroyed, forming gas, so this form of the disease is known as gas gangrene.
I must say that the disease can affect various parts of the body, but most often develops gangrene of hands or feet.Thus, any form can have an unfavorable course, characterized by extensive tissue damage, severe intoxication and impaired limb function.In a complicated course, when conservative therapies are unsuccessful, have resorted to operating methods, and the most commonly performed surgical treatment, which leads to the disability of patients.
That is why it is important to prevent the development of the disease, and at the first sign of injury immediately consult your doctor.It is important to promptly detect the state of the organism and the disease, which can carry out the development of gangrene and pursue their persistent and adequate treatment.This will be the best prevention of gangrene of the extremities in patients of any age.