B12 deficiency anemia : The main cause of the disease

Diseases of the blood system develops as a result of violations of blood or the predominance kroverazrusheniya, which in turn is displayed in the peripheral blood.B12 deficiency anemia - a condition in which there is a perverse erythropoiesis due to lack of vitamin B12 available.It hyperchromic megaloblastic anemia, in which, even with a reduced amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells will have a high hematocrit.Aplastic anemia is also a similar picture, but manifested in the form megalotsitoza.

B12 deficiency anemia before wearing malignant character, and, as a rule, people are dying from it.But now we found a link to the content of vitamin B12, and is no longer relevant to call it such.For the first time this has been described anemia Addison in 1855, were subsequently amended Birmera in 1868. After that, you can find more under one name like Addison's disease-Birmera.

Etiology and pathogenesis

Pernicious anemia develops as a result of violations of the endogenous and exogenous insufficient i

ntake of vitamin B12.When a hereditary disease of the stomach glands that produce gastromukoprotein, disrupted binding of this vitamin is not followed by its absorption in the gastric mucosa.

As a result, failure tsiankobalamina disturbed erythropoiesis and it goes on megaloblastic type.Consequently kroverazrusheniya processes predominate over the processes of hematopoiesis.Reduced number of red blood cells are unable to fully provide the authorities with oxygen, so developing tissue hypoxia.

B12 deficiency anemia - main reasons:

  • insufficient intake of vitamin with food;
  • inherited lack of factor Castle;
  • changes in the gastric mucosa, mechanical damage, once the stomach and atrophic processes;
  • gastrectomy;
  • colitis, enteritis, or parasitic infestation and other

Classification by severity of anemia:

  • easy - hemoglobin above 90 g / l.
  • average - hemoglobin of 90-70 g / l;
  • heavy - hemoglobin less than 70 g / l.


clinical picture develops slowly, so in the early stages of diagnosed only as a general blood test.

With the development of the disease there is a weakness, fatigue, dizziness, headaches, shortness of breath, pale skin and sclera ikterichnost, sometimes with lemon-yellow shade, when it went liver damage.Language when viewed from smooth and shiny, and flattened nipples atrophied, sometimes marked swelling or appearance of his wounds in the mouth.

These changes are called gunterovskim glossitis.On palpation can detect an enlarged liver and spleen, and if EGD - atrophy of the gastric mucosa.Disorders of the nervous system are called funicular myelosis at which the disintegration of the nerve fibers in the spinal cord.

symptoms characteristic for this: paresthesia, polyneuropathy, sensory loss and increased tendon reflexes.Perhaps swollen lymph nodes.

Treatment B12 deficiency anemia

How to treat anemia determines only the doctor, because everything depends on the reason causing this disease.Undernutrition prescribe supplements in the form of cyanocobalamin, which is digested fairly quickly, however, can use the injection.The goal of therapy to saturate the body and maintain the concentration at a constant level.Currently, the administered dose is 500 mg daily.

In organic disorders of gastric mucosa except the cyanocobalamin prescribe drugs that promote the regeneration and restoration of the functional capacity of the stomach.When helminthic invasion added anthelmintic drugs.If a person did gastrectomy, he'll have a lifetime stabbing vitamin B12.

Treatment efficacy was evaluated by a common blood test.Keep in mind that the first signs of sickness should immediately contact a doctor and not self-medicate, because irreversible consequences in damage of the nervous system can disrupt your lifestyle!

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