Hepatitis called inflammatory liver disease.It can be acute or chronic.The most common cause of acute forms are different viruses.In addition to viruses, cause an acute form of parasitic infestation and bacterial septic infektsiya.Rezhe acute liver damage occurs in the use of drugs, poisoning potent toxic substances, as well as after radiotherapy during toxemia in pregnant women and due to extensive burns.
Symptoms of acute hepatitis
treatment of acute symptoms of view expressed and bright enough, and only in rare cases, the disease is asymptomatic.
- general weakness and poor health of the patient.
- Increased irritability, disturbed sleep.
- pain in the right upper quadrant.
- Change the color of the skin and mucous membranes.Color at the same time can be a bit of jaundice before ikterichnost.
- Change stool color (to gray-white), color of urine (instead of the straw-yellow - reddish brown).
- Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite.
- disorder chair.
- Hemorrhagic disorders - bleeding from the nose, the appearance of spider veins on the skin, petechiae.
- enlarged liver and spleen.
- itching, photophobia, dizziness.
Diagnosis of acute hepatitis B is made by the examination and the patient's complaints, ultrasound data, blood and urine tests, biochemical blood tests.Acute viral hepatitis is confirmed by changes in the blood and high activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), the amount of which may exceed the rate of 100 times.
special vigilance is the fact that at present there are thousands of drugs that can cause acute toxic hepatitis.Most likely, this is due to the free access of the population to the dosage forms in the pharmacy network, as well as the wrong prescription.Acute drug-induced hepatitis is caused by the side effects of drugs on the liver.
treatment of acute alcoholic kind of characteristic symptoms are similar to common symptoms of acute liver disease, but there are after consuming large amounts of alcohol.The disease occurs in nearly one-third of people with chronic alcoholism.The forecast of this kind of unfavorable hepatitis, and the disease may go after a binge in cirrhosis.
Signs and symptoms of hepatitis A
This disease is more common all the other viral hepatitis.In developed countries, the incidence rate does not exceed 30%, and in backward and developing countries - more than 70-80% of all virus.
The incubation period of the disease A is not more than 30 days.The clinical picture may show an increase in temperature, change in stool and urine, malaise, discoloration of the skin and sclera.
mechanism of transmission of acute hepatitis A - airborne, through food, water or contacts.In recent years dramatically increased the number of people infected through sexual contact, especially among homosexuals.To do this, the virus is characterized by a rapid development and growth.
hepatitis A are ill mainly young children, aged 3 to 10 years.Recently there was a tendency toward disease in individuals aged over 30 years.The greatest danger for infection is the patient during the incubation period, when the body of the sick person is an active viral replication.
marker of acute hepatitis A is the appearance of antibodies or immunoglobulin M (IgM anti-HAV and anti-HAV IgM).Antibodies are detected with a special analysis (IFA) in the blood.Antibodies are detected with the first day of illness, but also for the next 3-6 months after infection.
Preventive measures include good personal hygiene, protection during sexual intercourse, as well as specialized vaccination.Vaccinations are subject to the following categories of people:
- People in the professional risk (medical personnel, workers welfare and care services, catering workers, urban water supply and sewerage systems).
- People who travel to other countries, especially developing ones.
- People who are in contact with patients with hepatitis A.
How does hepatitis B?
mainly hepatitis B ill persons aged 20 to 50 years.This virus is transmitted through blood, that is, by hematogenous and sexually and in childbirth from mother to child.You can become infected with manicure and pedicure, while surgical intervention, with tattoo and piercing, if you were badly handled tools.
The incubation period ranges from 2 to 6 months, and the infectious process in the body starts with the entering of the virus in the blood.The clinical picture may be pronounced, and worn, with imperceptible course of the disease.At the expressed hepatitis B has all the typical signs of acute type, and if the form can be erased only frustration of a chair and light skin yellowness.
Treatment should be symptomatic and etiopathogenetic, as well as detoxification and antiviral therapy should be carried out.The best means of prevention is vaccination.
People who are at risk:
- People who are promiscuous and replacing a lot of partners.
- Addicts who use drugs by injection.
- Children whose mothers are infected with the disease.
- Paramedics and doctors operate on.
- patients on hemodialysis.
Summary of hepatitis C
Every year the number of people who get hepatitis C is increasing.Mechanism zarazheniya- hematogenous, ie infection occurs by ingestion of the virus in human blood.Ill young people aged 20-40 years.
The incubation period can range from 20 to 140 days, but the average is 50-60 days.The danger of this disease is that the disease is virtually no symptoms.Diagnosis can be made only on the basis of biochemical blood tests, and found by chance, during a test or having passed a medical examination.
Acute hepatitis C occurs with symptoms of malaise, nausea, weakness and sometimes pain in the joints.But these symptoms are manifested in other diseases, so the time to put the diagnosis presents certain difficulties.
traditional treatment, as with other forms of hepatitis.Liver transplantation is used in viral hepatitis C more often than in other forms of the disease, especially if the hepatitis C virus enters liver cirrhosis.