Rabies.Rabies - a viral infectious disease that affects the nerves of the brain and spinal cord cells, occurring with symptoms of deep lesions of the nervous system (dementia, aggression), which leads to inevitable death.
first rabies described Celsus back in 1 century ADSince rabies immunization has been developed, however, treatment had not been invented.Thus, rabies, and today is a fatal disease.
In this connection there is a lot of questions: Who is the causative agent as manifested rabies in humans, mad cow disease if the person is, what are the preventive measures, whether vaccinated against rabies man done? Let's start from the beginning.
causative agent of rabies is an RNA-containing virus Neuroryctes rabid.
How is rabies and what are its symptoms?
Rabies is transmitted transmissibility - the bite of sick animals or animals or licks sick wounds aerogenic when visiting caves inhabited by bats, alimentary - through food, transplatsentarno - from mother to fetus.
For animals that are
duration of the incubation period depends on the location or licks or bites.When you bite the head, face an average incubation period is 2 weeks, with the bite of the lower leg, the foot can be up to 1 year.
cases, when the first signs of rabies after dog bite is manifested through 2-3 years after the injuries were recorded.
The clinical picture of the disease can be divided into 3 periods: depression, excitement, paralytic period.
period of depression
first symptoms of rabies in humans - itching, burning sensation at the site for a long time healed wounds or abrasions.It is extremely rare in the old wounds may appear redness, swelling.
the nervous system changes appear depressed, depressed, troubled sleep with nightmares, anxiety, fear of death, apathy.
occurs within 2-3 days of the onset of the disease, followed by raising the temperature to 37-37,5 ° C.It manifested a marked increase in tone of the sympathetic nervous system (increased heart rate, dilation of the pupils), the development of symptoms such as hydro, photo, acousto, aerophobia.
One of the most striking symptoms - hydrophobia.The patient is thirsty, but when trying to take a sip of water, shouting throws off the glass develops a spasm of respiratory muscles.In the future such painful cramps can develop only have to think about the water the patient.Other signs of rabies in human aggression, increased salivation, inappropriate behavior.
gradually lengthen the periods of the excited state and are becoming more frequent.There are hallucinations, both visual and olfactory and auditory.In the interictal period consciousness is clear, and the patient is able to critically refers to the condition adequately answer questions.The duration of the excitation period is 2-3 days.
period for paralytic period is characterized by "an ominous calm."Excitation is gradually replaced by apathy, seizures usually cease.At the same time, a period of an imaginary being, which quickly ends.
body temperature quickly rises to high numbers, increased heart rate, paralysis develops quickly.Death occurs within 12-48 hours due to paralysis of the respiratory, cardiovascular centers.
Diagnosis and treatment
Basically, the doctor makes a diagnosis based on the clinical picture of the disease.In retrospect, the diagnosis is made based on the detection of cells Babishov Negro by histological examination of brain sections.
possible isolation of the virus from the patient biological fluids (saliva, cerebrospinal fluid) and PAF production reaction of the skin biopsies or prints with the cornea.
Currently, treatment of rabies in humans is impossible.Rabies - a fatal disease.
All therapy aimed only at alleviating the condition.
At a sting, or licks wounds urgent need to go to the nearest emergency room, which will decide whether to hold a rabies vaccination.
Currently, during the course of rabies vaccination rabies vaccine used for the "Coca" people - concentrated culture rabies vaccine and "AIG" - rabies immunoglobulin.
Rabies Vaccine creates active immunity long (1 year) generated 10-14 days, rabies immunoglobulin - passive, but just as ready-made antibodies are introduced.
The choice of drug depends on the location and severity of the bite, place or licks.Therapeutic and prophylactic immunization with rabies vaccine can be performed on an outpatient basis, while the use of rabies immunoglobulin is possible only in a hospital.
Introduction AIH is usually carried out under cover of antihistamines.Vaccination is carried out at 0, 3, 7, 10, 30, 90 days.
When using drugs rabies recommend completely abandon alcohol intake for the entire course of vaccination and 6 months for the prevention of complications of the nervous system.
Mad cow disease in humans
disease not related to the usual classical rabies in animals and humans.Another name for the disease - spongiform encephalopathy.
infectious agents in this case are the prions, or abnormal proteins of particles affecting the nervous tissue, particularly the brain.
Can develop mad cow disease in humans?Can.Infection occurs through the alimentary by eating contaminated meat (just 0.5 grams)
Weight loss, fatigue, sleep disturbance, memory are the initial signs of the disease.Gradually joined by spastic paralysis, tremors.Perhaps decreased vision, ataxia.Death occurs within 8-12 months after the onset of the first signs of the disease.Effective treatments, as well as methods of prevention has not yet been developed.