Gonorrhea - this venereal disease of an infectious nature, which is caused by Gram-negative diplococci Neisseria gonorrhoeae.pathogen transmission is through sexual contact from partner to partner.In this disease, there is a loss of mucous urogenital system, as well as the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane of the rectum, the oropharynx.
According to statistics gonorrhea sick about 200 million adults.This infection occurs both in males and females.
How do you get gonorrhea
main route of transmission of the causative agent - is, of course, sex when during intercourse the pathogen is transmitted from the patient or a carrier to a healthy person.Do not forget that all kinds of sexual intercourse (genital, oral, anal) can lead to infection with gonococcus.
second transmission mechanism - is vertical when there is a transfer of infection during pregnancy from mother to fetus.One of such complications is blennophthalmia infection that leads to blindness child.
third pathway - a home, carried out through
What appears gonorrhea?
manifestations of this disease has some features of both men and women.For men it takes on the type of urethritis, prostatitis, orchitis, epididymitis.Women also often manifest at gonococcus infection cystitis, cervicitis, urethritis.
There are a number of symptoms common symptoms of gonorrhea in both sexes, which include:
- burning sensation that intensifies during urination;
- pain during urination;
- the presence of inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the urethra;
- presence of abundant purulent discharge yellowish.
These symptoms appear 3-7 days after infection.The duration of the disease is 3-4 weeks, followed by a recovery or a full recovery, a process becomes chronic.
smear method of detecting gonorrhea
smear method of diagnosing gonorrhea infection is the most common and widely used research.To perform this diagnostic procedure is necessary to take a swab for gonorrhea from the surface of the affected mucosa, such as the vagina, urethra, rectum, cervical canal.
How to take smear for gonorrhea?
depending on the sex of the patient, there are some features in the fence of the material.So swab for gonorrhea in women is taken from the mucous membrane of the vagina, cervix and urethra, but the swab for gonorrhea in men is taken only from the urethra.Required for 4-5 days prior to collection of material stop receiving antibacterial agents, and just before the stroke to refrain from urinating, sexual intercourse, any hygiene procedures.
When taking smear for gonorrhea in women is introduced into the vagina "mirror" and a special swab collected all selections in the vagina, cervix and the urethra, after which a small number is applied to a glass slide.This procedure is accompanied by only a slight discomfort.At the same time carry out the taking of smears should be the second or third day of menstruation, as during this time the likelihood of pathogen detection is maximized.
That swab for gonorrhea in men harder to take because of the anatomical features of the structure.This procedure is carried out with a special probe, which is inserted into the urethra.Just before the fence can be made of the prostate massage or urethral probe.Fence material men more unpleasant and painful procedure than in females.
Analysis of the results
After swabbing held its color using methylene blue with fixing iodine solution and washing with an alcohol solution.After this staining gonococci become blue, while the cytoplasm of a pale bluish color.Then, a smear staining Gram, which helps most accurately differentiate gonococci.
sensitivity of this method ranges from 40 to 86% and is determined by taking the smear quality.Training of doctors, laboratory and many other factors.The specificity of the smear - 90%, so after Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection under a microscope conduct other investigations required.
intake stroke and direct microscopic study - this is the most affordable, easy, fast and effective method of detecting gonorrhea!