Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease, the causative agent - the hepatitis C virus, which is a parasite in the liver cells.In recent years, the frequency of diseases form of C increases, affecting young people aged 20-40 years.According to statistics, 80% of all infected patients with hepatitis C virus remains in the blood for a lifetime, the remaining 20% - takes place independently.
Ways of transmission of hepatitis C
Some people believe that you can only get infected through sexual contact.This is partly true, but it is necessary to know all the options as transmitted hepatitis C. The main route of transmission of infection - hematogenous, ie infection occurs when the blood gets hepatitis C.
methods of transmission through blood:
- If used in exUsed syringes, needles, cotton wool.
- If a healthy person uses a toothbrush, razor or nail scissors sick person.
- If a tattoo or piercing made instruments that are poorly treated, and they remained the virus from a sick person.
- If the medical procedure was performed poorly sterilized instruments.
- If you had direct contact with a sick person healthy through the blood (eg blood transfusion).This is a rare case, because, since 1999, all donated blood prior to administration of test for the presence of hepatitis C virus
How is the disease, if all these options were not?Infection can occur through sexual contact, but the condition for this is to be in contact with blood.In the study of this issue have been allocated a group of individuals with a high degree and lower the risk of transmission of sexually.
In high-risk group includes people who are promiscuous and often change partners, as well as those who are not protected a condom.In other words, it's mostly prostitutes and homosexuals.Conversely, in the lowest risk group includes people who have a regular sexual partner and a stable sex with him.
Hepatitis C is transmitted through sexual contact, if the genitals during sexual intercourse appear microcracks and scratches.
in different countries and continents, revealed various statistics hepatitis C through sexual contact.Genital tract infection with hepatitis C the lowest in North America and Western Europe, and the largest - in South America, Africa, and the highest in Southeast Asia.
How do you get the disease during pregnancy and childbirth, and what to do if a virus is detected in a pregnant woman?The risk of contracting a child during childbirth small, only 5%, because the virus is not able to penetrate through the utero-placental barrier.
Infection occurs primarily during the passage through the birth canal and the baby's contact with the blood of mothers.The risk of infection for the baby is increased if the integrity of the skin was broken baby during delivery (for example, when using forceps).But at the same time at caesarean section the risk of infection for the baby is reduced.Half of these children recover on their own, and the condition of breastfeeding is for this outcome of the disease.
Often the question arises whether there are ways of infection through breast-feeding?Information on this topic is not, but if there are cracks and nipple injuries better cancel feeding.
Hepatitis C is transmitted through kissing, if the integrity of the mucosal wall was broken during a kiss.In the study of the virus was detected in the saliva, which means that there is a high probability of contracting such a way.The risk group includes those people who have gum disease (stomatitis, gingivitis, periodontal disease).
In addition to these methods, there are few ways of contracting hepatitis C, these include infection participants of the fight, if the integrity of the skin, but in the fight the infected person involved was broken during the fight.Infection occurs when a abrasions, injuries, cuts.
Recently, there is a perception that the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted in the home, using a kitchen appliances.How do you get infected, we have already described, and if the person is drinking from a cup, which enjoyed the support of hepatitis C, it is theoretically a possible route of infection.Again, it needs to have a sick person has bleeding gums.Fortunately, if you follow the rules of personal hygiene and do not use other people's items, the risk of infection is minimal.
Infection occurs through airborne droplets (sneezing, talking), and can not be infected by shaking hands and arms during lunch from common dishes.
There are people who belong to certain risk of contracting hepatitis C. Epidemiology there is the concept of high, medium and low risk.To the highest degree of concern:
- Addicts who use drugs by injection.
- People who donate blood introduced until 1999.
For moderate risk include:
- patients on hemodialysis.
- Children born from mothers sick.
- people with transplanted organs.
For small or low risk are:
- Health workers.
- prostitutes and homosexuals.
- People having one sexual partner, the patient's viral hepatitis C.
People at risk need to donate blood for hepatitis C and undergo a full clinical examination.
Symptoms of viral hepatitis C
The incubation period for hepatitis C is generally 50-60 days, but the incubation period can last from 20 to 140 days.First signs and symptoms of the disease at the end of the incubation period.During this time, the virus is able to adapt to the new environment and begin to actively proliferate for him.
distinctive feature of this disease is that in this form of the disease is the so-called passive or inactive of virus hepatitis C. This means that the majority of clinical cases no symptoms, while there is an active destruction of liver cells.
Symptoms that may be in acute hepatitis C, reduced to general malaise, weakness, upset his chair, decreased appetite, nausea, and sometimes can appear joint pain.Change the color of the skin and sclera for hepatitis C is not typical.
The greatest danger is that an inactive hepatitis C can go from the acute phase of a chronic, with all the ensuing consequences.Chronic hepatitis C is typically 80% of the ends cirrhosis or liver cancer.If the infection occurred yet some hepatitis C virus, the combination is extremely unfavorable for the patient, and ends with death.
Patients should not live in isolation from society and family, and these patients do not need any special care or maintenance (children and elderly).At work, in the family or in society, they should be treated in the same way as healthy people, because these people do not represent a potential danger to others.But military service people with hepatitis C do not exempt for social and medical.