Arterial hypertension - a disease that is characterized by increased blood pressure in the arteries.This is a fairly common disease in adults, which can not be completely cured, but can be kept under pressure well controlled.
Pressure fluctuations are considered normal if it is reduced during sleep and increases during physical or psihoemotsionalnooy loads.Blood pressure is a healthy person ranges from 100/60 to 140/90.Therefore, the pressure increase in the above figures allows to suspect the presence of hypertension.The share of so-called renovascular hypertension, accounts for about 1% of cases of high blood pressure.
Types of hypertension.Diagnosis
In its origin are two forms of the disease can be identified:
- essential (primary) hypertension or independent;
- symptomatic (secondary) or hypertension, which appeared on the background of some diseases such as endocrine or kidney.
Differential diagnosis of hypertension is performed through systematic measurement of pressure of both hands through
To assign the correct treatment of hypertension, you must first determine the cause of the disease and its severity.
Diet for hypertension
hypertensive patients should carefully monitor their weight.Every extra kg significantly increases the workload on the heart and blood vessels, which increases further the development of the disease.
Moreover, the patient must reduce the use of salt up to 4-5 grams per day.This restriction applies to coffee and alcoholic beverages.Smoking should be avoided completely.
your diet patients to be filled with fresh fruits and vegetables, seafood, and foods rich in calcium, potassium and magnesium.If all these measures do not bring the desired result, the doctor appoints medication.
drug therapy for the treatment of hypertension are commonly used are as follows: beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, alpha-1-adrenergic receptors, angiotensin II receptor blockers.Such drugs are the indications and contraindications, side effects and a variety of unique moments.
in the treatment of hypertension in the elderly focuses on diuretics, particularly with neutral metabolic effect.With regard to the treatment of arterial hypertension in children, treatment is built to meet the specific causes of the disease.Started treatment with preparation of a long term action, with a minimum dose and gradually increase it.
Due to these features, select the therapy and dosage regimen must be exactly qualified.What belongs to the standard treatment of hypertension discussed below.
Beta-blockers, until recently, were considered essential drugs in the treatment of arterial hypertension in children and adolescents.But now their use in the treatment somewhat limited.And this is connected with a number of side effects of this therapy.To those include insomnia, fatigue, depression, memory impairment, bradycardia, increase in blood sugar, as well as muscle weakness and emotional lability.Using
beta-blockers should be carried ECG once per month and control the level of lipids and glucose in the blood.In addition, it requires regular evaluation of the emotional state, as well as muscle tone in a patient.
Calcium channel blockers
To date, the greatest preference is given to the sustained calcium channel blockers - drugs over long periods.Their use marked side effects: dizziness, peripheral edema, heart palpitations, muscle weakness, facial flushing, gastrointestinal disorders.
Periodically patients also requires an assessment of emotional state and muscle tone.
Usually diuretics are appointed in the first place, often for an extended period.Negative characteristics of this therapy is to reduce the level of potassium in the blood, as well as the violation of male potency, orthostatic syncope.In this connection, in the use of diuretics requires constant monitoring of glucose, potassium, blood lipids, as well as monthly ECG.
When using these means the pressure drop occurs as a result of blocking the receptors that are located in the walls of arteries.Thus, the drug prevents cramps, promotes complete relaxation of the arteries and the expansion of its lumen.All together helps reduce blood pressure.
angiotensin receptor antagonists II
drugs that belong to this group, works to block receptors in the arterial wall to angiotezinu II of, thus preventing the spasm of blood vessels and increased blood pressure.
This group of drugs block an enzyme involved in the formation of the vasoconstrictor substance angiotensin II.
All preparations, as mentioned earlier, are used in combination.Only highly skilled expert will be able to make the correct treatment regimen that will bring the desired positive effect in the treatment and reduce the blood pressure with minimal side effects.