The carotid artery in the neck , and its possible disease

carotid artery is called steam, which originates in the chest cavity, the left originates in the aortic arch and the right - the shoulder bore.

Anatomy

Thus, the left carotid artery was longer than the right by a few centimeters.Common carotid artery in the neck goes through the upper aperture of the thorax, rising up almost vertically.The carotid artery supplies blood to the neck of a large part of the head, brain and eyesight.

worth noting that the common carotid artery does not move in its branches, but at the level of thyroid cartilage upper edge is divided into:

  • The internal carotid artery;
  • external carotid artery.

normal blood flow to the brain is about 55ml per 100 grams of tissue, and as the need for oxygen, the rate is 3.7 ml / 1 min / 100 g

This amount of blood supply can provide normal arteryintact vascular lumen.If the carotid artery in the neck has a narrower gap, it is inevitable violation of the blood supply to the brain, as well as violation of various metabolic proce

sses, development of ischemia.The narrowing of the lumen of the arteries may be a consequence of atherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, nonspecific aorto-arteritis, syphilis, tuberculosis, and collagenosis.

Chronic vascular disease called atherosclerosis appears the culprit of this disease in ninety percent of cases.

Often atherosclerosis can develop into a serious disease, such as carotid artery aneurysm.In most cases, the localization of cerebral aneurysms is part of the carotid artery (internal).Typically, the internal carotid artery aneurysm has a multiple character.The magnitude of aneurysms is not more than one centimeter, it is very rare aneurysm diameter exceeding two to three centimeters.The disease is manifested by headaches and seizures in rare cases can develop local cerebral ischemia.To detect aneurysms used angiography, magnetic resonance imaging angiography and X-ray CT.If there is need aneurysm surgery.

Seventy-five percent of cases there are "non-classical" types of structure circle of Willis (arterial circle of the cerebrum).The scientists claim that these types of structures adversely affect the functioning of blood circle, the regulation of blood flow in the brain, in addition, they may show a major cause of aneurysms.The most dangerous case is the trifurcation of the internal carotid artery, which has the strongest impact on the proper distribution of blood in the brain.There are several types trifurcation:

  1. front.At a trifurcation front brain receives 50% of the blood from the internal carotid artery, and from the opposite - 30%;
  2. back.On the back side of the internal carotid artery trifurcation is able to deliver the brain fifty percent of the blood procedure opposite artery - 40%, and the basilar - only 10%.


Numerous studies show that non-classical structure of the circle of Willis in 64% of cases are precisely those holders mezocranial type skull.

One of the mysterious and little-known arterial disease is considered to kinking of the carotid arteries.Today, more than 25% of the adult population are shown a variety of options tortuosity and elongation of the carotid arteries in the neck.Cause of crimps is usually congenital, but there are cases when the arteries can occur due to elongation of hypertension.

What kind of a kinking of the carotid arteries?

  1. artery elongation implies a gentle curve in the course of the vessel, rarely causes anxiety, it is found at a completely random exploration.With age, the smooth curves may apply excesses, since the elasticity of the arterial wall changes.As a result, inevitably poor circulation in the brain.
  2. kinking (artery is bent at an acute angle).This species can be congenital, evolving from elongated carotid artery.The bends can be formed as a result of hypertension, progressive atherosclerosis.In this case, you need surgical correction of tortuosity.
  3. Koyling (arterial loop is formed).Koyling implies significant changes in blood flow in the artery.The manifestation of symptoms of circulatory insufficiency in the brain constitutes a violation of blood compensation, and dictates the urgent need for a detailed examination and further treatment.

One of the most common causes of diseases of the carotid arteries - a narrowing of the carotid artery.The risk increases with age restriction.As the formation of atherosclerotic plaque on the inner walls of its carotid artery lumen narrows, blood flow and deteriorates.Formed plaques in carotid artery of fibrous tissue, calcium and cholesterol.Atherosclerotic plaques tend to grow platelets and clog the carotid arteries.

prevent the development of carotid artery disease is possible by means of such measures:

  • Bezholesterinovaya diet;
  • Quitting smoking;
  • control body weight;
  • Regular exercise.

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