Wasting - is malnutrition, which refers to the degeneration and is characterized by a decrease in tissue nutrition, child growth and body weight.When malnutrition violated the metabolic processes that lead to delays in physical development of children.
Depending on the time of occurrence distinguish congenital and acquired forms of malnutrition, and the total frequency of occurrence varies between 3 to 5% of all childhood diseases.
How to determine the extent of malnutrition?
degrees of malnutrition means how pronounced the symptoms, and some have a weight deficit in relation to the growth of the child.For example, the birth of a child is diagnosed with "hypotrophy 1 degree" in newborns, if he was born in a pregnancy over 38 weeks, body weight is 2800 or less, and the length of the body -. Less than 50 cm If the child has acquired a form of malnutritionthen calculate the so-called "slimming index" or the index of fatness on Chulitskaya (professor of the Department of the University of physical Educat
IUCH (index of fatness Chulitskaya) - is the sum of arm circumference, femur and tibia, which take away from the baby's body length.Calculations carried out in centimeters, and in normal children aged under one year, the figure is 25-30 cm. If children develop malnutrition, this index decreased up to 10-15 cm, which indicates the presence of hypotrophy 1 degree.
Underweight is also calculated according to the formula, which is at all pediatricians.The table contains the weight of the indicators that should be added per month:
- 1 month after birth - 600
- 2 and 3 months - 800 g
- 4 month - 750
Calculation fifth and all subsequent months isfrom the previous weight minus '50
When measuring the degree of malnutrition compared to the actual weight of the child and the one that is calculated from the table according to age.For example, a child born with a weight of 3500 g, and at the age of 2 months weighs 4000 g Actual weight should be 3500 + 600 + 800 = 4900, the deficit is 900 grams, which is a percentage of 18%:
4900 g - 100%
900 g - x%
x = (900 x 100) / 4900 = 18%
- hypotrophy 1 degree - placed with a deficit of weight from 10% to 20%.
- Wasting 2 degrees - put under the weight of the deficit from 20% to 30%.
- Wasting Grade 3 - weight deficit is put at 30% and above.
Signs 1 degree malnutrition
Each degree of malnutrition has its own clinical picture, characteristic signs and symptoms, which can also determine the stage of the disease.
Symptoms characteristic of malnutrition 1 degree, the following:.
- IUCH is 10-15 cm
- subcutaneous fat on your stomach disappear.
- flabby folds of skin and slowly straightened.
- elasticity of soft tissues is reduced.
- Muscles become flaccid.
- body weight below the normal weight by 10-20%.
- No stunting.
- feels the child does not suffer and the mind is not broken.
- child is frequently ill and other infectious diseases.
- There is a slight indigestion (regurgitation).
- appear irritability and sleep disturbances.
- child becomes restless and tired quickly.
Treatment of the extent of malnutrition is not complicated and can normalize weight in the reduction mode (the entire amount of food divided into 7-8 receptions) and diet.The diet is dominated by carbohydrates, cereals, fruits, vegetables.
Signs 2 degrees of the disease
hypotrophy 2 extent characterized by the following symptoms and signs:
- IUCH becomes less and 10 to zero.
- fat layer is not almost the entire area of the body.
- appear on the skin sagging and laxity.
- clearly visible joints and bones.
- There is a decrease or lack of appetite.
- Vomiting, nausea and frequent regurgitation of food.
- irregular and unstable stool, and the stool are the remnants of undigested food.
- Signs of vitamin deficiency - dry hair, brittle nails and thinning, cracks in the corners of the mouth.
- weight deficit reaches 20-30%.
- lagging behind growth.
- symptoms of the nervous system - drowsiness, restlessness, fatigue, hype, irritability, sleep disturbance.
- Violation of thermoregulation process (the child quickly overheats and cools).
- infectious diseases kid gets sick often and long.
Treatment of the extent of malnutrition can be carried out both at home and in the hospital.For the treatment of increasing the number of feedings and reduce food portions.From medication prescribed biostimulators, vitamins, minerals, enzymes.
Signs 3 degrees of malnutrition in children
This degree is considered to be severe, because all the symptoms only get worse, and without timely treatment lead to death in children.To all the above features are added features of disorders of all organs and systems:
- deficit weight is 30% or more.
- lack of subcutaneous fat.
- observed irregular heartbeat and heart function.
- Violation breathing.
- Mental Retardation.
- atrophy of muscles and skin folds.
- Symptoms of anorexia.
- Violation of thermoregulation and reduced pressure.
Treatment of the extent of malnutrition should be performed only in a hospital, as the disrupted metabolic processes and activities of all organs and systems.Drug treatment includes intravenous blood transfusion, plasma, glucose solution, hormones, as well as treatment with enzymes, vitamins, microelement composition.