Wasting in children occurs as a rule, in the first years of life and is characterized by a lag in growth and weight baby.By the nature of occurrence is a congenital or acquired.In the first case for the growth and development of the fetus meets a pregnant woman, and the second main reason is the lack of nutrients entering the child's body.
causes of malnutrition in chil
When it comes to congenital malnutrition, they say about the state of the fetus.If this form of malnutrition in time to diagnose and treat a pregnant woman, the child begins to rapidly gain weight and symptoms of malnutrition leave.Another thing, when it comes to malnutrition in children, as this disease can suffer even children born healthy.
reasons that lead to the acquisition of malnutrition, the following:
- Lack of milk production in the mother and the deterioration of the milk.
- Flat and inverted nipples in the mother (difficulty sucking).
- Tight and undeveloped breast.
- Premature babies and congenital malnutrition in children.
- Children born in a state of asphyxia (suffocation).
- presence of intracranial birth trauma in children.
- Congenital malformations ( "hare lip", "cleft palate", pyloric stenosis).
- unbalanced diet during feeding (in formula-fed infants).
- Lack of child care and poor living conditions.
- Violation of sanitary-hygienic regime and errors in the diet.
- Psychological factors and aggression in the upbringing of children, causing fear and lack of appetite.
- Taking certain medications that cause indigestion and lack of appetite.
- Infectious state.
- Abnormalities of metabolism and enzimopaty.
symptoms of malnutrition in a child occur regardless of the reason, which causes them.Externally, such a child has specific characteristics - the head of the body much more (as the brain continues to develop), adipose tissue is not available, lean body, wrinkled skin, bone line sharply marked.
development of clinical symptoms directly related to the stage of the disease, and the symptoms themselves can smoothly appear and disappear, if the child is assigned to therapy and the causes of such a state.In this regard, can be divided into 3 degrees of malnutrition in children:
- Wasting in children 1 degree or state of degeneration.When etompo throughout the child's body surface fat layer is thinned.Depletion of the child begins with the abdomen, gradually moving on the arms, legs and face.Weight gain is not observed or is slow motion.Neuro-psychological condition of the child is still normal, but without treatment after a while begins to occur sleep disturbance and appetite.
- Wasting in children 2 degree or state of atrophy.This fatty tissue is absent not only in the stomach, but in the chest and face.Such children are usually stunted, become mentally unstable behavior becomes sluggish, and appetite is reduced or absent.In children, reduced resistance to various infections, and there is a violation of thermoregulation.The reason for this condition is progressive and diselementoz beriberi, which are difficult to treat and correct.
- Wasting in children grade 3 or state of decomposition.These children are more like prisoners of a concentration camp than normal children, who are now becoming increasingly rare, but nevertheless, this condition may occur.The child has no adipose tissue throughout the body surface.With this degree of malnutrition, which is considered to be severe, impaired functioning of all organs and systems.The child may be respiratory failure, heart rate, digestion and other symptoms.
In some cases, children are only small in stature and have a little weight.To properly assess the degree of malnutrition and the state of growth and development of the child, apply the so-called "slimming index", which is measured by the growth of the child relation to its weight.In this weight deficit for height should not exceed 30-35%, since 40% of the weight of the deficit can occur death of a child from starvation.
treatment and diagnosis of disease
Before the doctor who is treating malnutrition, faces the task - to establish the cause of this condition, as well as accurately as possible to establish the degree of malnutrition and severity of the condition.It is important to know at what point the child stopped gaining weight, and that was the reason for such a situation.
If the child was born normal, and in some age no longer gain weight, most likely, we are talking about an infectious disease.If weight gain is a violation of the very process of birth, then the child has congenital anomalies or malformations.
malnutrition in children Treatment of severe difficult, as with the growth of the weight of the deficit is a change of regulation of metabolic and other processes that support the child's ability to live.That is why so carefully monitor local pediatrician for weight gain and growth of the child's first year of life, measuring all parameters of each month.
After establishing the causes of the disease and its removal have resorted to measures that will help for a short period of time to gain weight.To do this, the child shows the foods that are high in calories, and foods low in fat and high in carbohydrates.
also changes and a diet that includes eating every 2-2.5 hours in small portions.Showing fresh vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins and minerals.
In severe cases, drug therapy is used:
- Apilak (royal jelly) tablets.
- plasma transfusion of blood and fresh blood.
- Aminostimulin injections.
- pepsin or resin acid.
- Pancreatin and other enzymes.
- Anabolic steroids.
- Introduction glucose intravenously (in severe cases).
- hormone treatment.
in treating children with malnutrition need to remember that weight gain should not be accelerated, as first have to change your metabolism and food digestion capacity.Protein foods should be given with caution, gradually moving from a small amount of protein foods to normal diet.