Forms and types of amblyopia

called amblyopia resistant reversible decrease in visual acuity of one or both eyes, which appears as a result of functional disorders.Due to various diseases of the eye (astigmatism, strabismus, hyperopia, the pathology of the fundus, clouding of the lens or cornea) information transmitted to the visual cortex is distorted, which leads to the disappearance of binocular vision.In this case, the brain, which can not construct a clear three-dimensional image from one eye eliminates the work of visual acuity of the eye drops markedly.

Amblyopia is a fairly common disease, it is diagnosed in 1-2 out of 100 people according to statistics.Different types of amblyopia is diagnosed mainly in children, but sometimes adult patients randomly or during routine inspection detected decreased vision in one eye.

Symptoms and severity of the disease

The main clinical manifestations of amblyopia include:

  1. Reduced visual acuity of one or both eyes
  2. Expressed difference in visual acuity of the right and
  3. left eye asymmetrical eye reaction
  4. Impaired function of muscles of one or both eyeballs

disorders of adults may suffer from the early stages of the disease, then the body gets used, and the person ceases to notice the signs of the disease and does not feel discomfort.

This is important!To determine the presence of amblyopia simple enough - is just close your eyes alternately and if you see one eye is worse than the other, you should contact an ophthalmologist.


disease Depending on the loss of visual acuity distinguish several degrees of amblyopia:

  • Amblyopia first degree - called amblyopia very weak and characterized by a decrease in visual acuity up to 0.9-0.8
  • second degree - this is a weak degree of development of the exigencies of the diseaseview to 0.7-0.5
  • amblyopia third degree - reduced visual acuity to 0.4-0.3, characterizes the average amblyopia
  • IV degree - with a decrease in visual acuity of 0.2 to 0.05
  • V is characterized by the degree of acuity below 0.05

Primary amblyopia

classification of amblyopia at the time of occurrence includes primary and secondary form of the disease, and the prevalence - sided and double-sided amblyopia.

In primary (innate) amblyopia throughout life, from infancy, visual acuity in one eye lower than the other.This pathology is detected in early childhood or in adolescence or adulthood if preventive examination by an ophthalmologist.

Doctors have identified a number of reasons why you may receive a congenital amblyopia:

  1. One of the reasons is considered to be the underdevelopment of the optic nerve in utero
  2. By Kenigshteyna and Schleich cause of the disease may be bleeding in the retina, which is the newborn can get during the processdelivery.It can be multiple petechial hemorrhages or one larger, more often such hematomas resolve, but their effects can become a weakness of the eye retina, which has no ocular symptoms.
  3. Genetically caused amblyopia may occur in children, in a family where there are people suffering from this disease.Three of ophthalmic diseases (amblyopia, anisometropia and strabismus) are genetically determined malformation of the optic apparatus, is inherited.

If the primary (innate) amblyopia diagnosed before the age of 6 years and at an early stage, it can be cured.For the treatment used pleoptika (active and passive).Sealing (occlusion) healthy (leading) of the eye is called passive pleoptikoy.Active pleoptikoy called a combination of occlusion and the stimulation of the retina of the patient's eyes, which is carried out by means of electrical and optical pulses, as well as special computer programs.

secondary amblyopia

secondary (acquired) form of the disease is called amblyopia, in which it appears on the lifetime (as in childhood and in adulthood) for various reasons.According to the development of the reasons are several kinds of acquired amblyopia: deprivation (of obscure) anisometric, hysterical, strabismic (strabizmaticheskuyu), refractive and mixed.

as factors in the development of secondary forms of amblyopia can be called:

  1. Turbidity cornea or lens, which is not treated for a long time.
  2. Strabismus, more precisely, it is a cause of secondary amblyopia in children.As a result of strabismus in the brain incorrect information is supplied, with the result that it can not establish a clear three-dimensional image and eliminates the patient eyes from the work of the visual apparatus.
  3. inadequate correction of visual acuity may cause a mismatch of images from the two eyes.
  4. anomaly cones, causing tsvetoslepotu, is also the cause of this disease.

Forms secondary amblyopia

deprivation (of obscure) is called amblyopia, appearing as a result of visual deprivation eye, which is caused by congenital or acquired at an early age opacities of optical media of the eye (cataracts, corneal clouding), ptosis or hemophthalmia.After eliminating the disease, the treatment of which is held by surgery, visual acuity is usually reduced.

Strabizmicheskaya or strabismic amblyopia is caused by disorders of binocular vision, which is due to suppression of the eye for a long time.The reason for the development is mainly strabismus, in which the brain receives information from only one eye.Accordingly, the intensity of the visual impulses coming to the patient's eyes, is greatly reduced.Amblyopia develops in a child with strabismus leads to the fact that the patient is even more eye deviates.

method of treatment of amblyopia strabizmicheskoy depends on fixing the eye of the object.Ophthalmologists isolated strabismic amblyopia different lock types:

  • Amblyopia with the correct (center) Lock - in this form of the disease squinting eyes, when you turn off the healthy, able to capture a subject that examines the central fovea macula.
  • amblyopia with the wrong fixing (stable and unstable off-center and off-center and center intermittent) - fixation considered false macula subject.
  • Amblyopia with the lack of fixation.

anisometric amblyopia occurs because of the different refractive eye, the result of which is the difference value of the object displayed on the retina of the left eye and right eye, which does not allow the brain to form a single visual image.

About refractive amblyopia can say when the cause of the disease pathology becomes uncorrected refractive errors, resulting in a fuzzy focus the object with one or two eyes.

hysterical amblyopia called rare, occurring against the backdrop of affect or chronic stress.Psychogenic blindness can be the only manifestation of hysteria or combined with other disorders of the work of the visual apparatus (violation of color vision, photophobia, narrowing the field of view).More common in women and is bilateral.The average duration of the disease from 1 to 9 months.Cases of illness stretching for several decades.therapy course includes sedatives, psychotherapy, even hypnosis.

This is important!Remember, amblyopia is curable with early treatment to the doctor and started treatment time you have the opportunity to retain the ability to see the world in all its beauty.

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