Gingivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gums, the name of the disease from the Latin word gingiva - gums.
Gingivitis is a fairly common disease, especially frequent in adolescence, juvenile gingivitis and pregnancy.Thus in these patients due to hormonal changes disease usually more severe.
progression of gingivitis can lead to serious complications, especially in periodontitis, leading eventually to tooth loss.Often gingivitis is itself a consequence of periodontitis or periodontal disease.
first symptoms and causes gingivitis
causes of gingivitis are very diverse.Conventionally, they are divided into internal and external.
internal reasons first of all the following:
- growth of teeth and injury to growing tooth gums,
- pathology bite,
- vitamin deficiencies,
- various diseases of the digestive system,
- lowered immunity due to various reasons.
External causes - is the impact:
- physical (mechanical trauma, burns, exposure to radiation),
- chemical (affecting gums aggressive substances),
- biological (various infections),
- medical (iatrogenic damage to the gums induring medical manipulations) factors.
most common cause of gingivitis is the presence of multiple carious teeth, complicated by additional bacterial infections.It meets and viral gingivitis, in most cases, herpes, but gingival inflammation can develop in other viral infections.Many people wonder whether gingivitis is contagious.The disease is not contagious, but if the disease is the result of infections, especially viral, such gingivitis can be considered contagious.
In children, the main cause of gingivitis is teething and injuries of the mucous membranes of the gums, but often at this age, there is a simple and marginal gingivitis, which is the cause of non-compliance with oral hygiene.
Distinguish following types of gingivitis:
- ulcerative gingivitis (or acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Vincent).
gingivitis also traditionally divided into acute and chronic forms.
If the process captures all the gums, gingivitis is called generalized (widespread) if the inflammatory process is limited to a separate section of the gums, say localized gingivitis.Symptoms of the disease
catarrhal gingivitis is characterized by an inflammatory process caused redness, swelling of the mucosa and bleeding gums.Patients with this form of the disease concerned little itching in the gums and the pain of their meals.
necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis manifests education on the mucous membrane gums and necrotic ulceration.Clinical symptoms presented bad breath - halitosis, great soreness of the gums, deterioration of general condition, fever, increase in regional lymph nodes.
Hypertrophic gingivitis is characterized by an increase in gingival papillae.At the initial stage of this form of the disease does not manifest itself by any discomfort, and then there are bleeding gums and pain while eating.In atrophic
same gingivitis occurs, on the contrary a decrease of gingival tissue, its level is gradually reduced, resulting in the exposure of the tooth root.Manifested this disease primarily pain when exposed to cold or hot food.
desquamative gingivitis develops in women during menopause because of the increased vulnerability of the mucous membranes of the gums, often observed in this period due to the lack of education of the gums epithelial cells.It is characterized by the appearance of this form of the disease in addition to pain and bleeding gums while eating the appearance of original bubble.
Treatment of gingivitis, which should only be done by a dentist, is primarily in the elimination of predisposing factors: the rehabilitation of carious teeth, removal of dental plaque, and so on.In some cases, it may be necessary to perform surgery - curettage.
Furthermore, assigned different drugs: antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, topical immunomodulators, if necessary, and some other antifungal drugs.
the treatment of gingivitis in pregnant women must always take into account the condition of the body and is used only by those products that do not harm the health of both the mother and her child.
For the prevention of gingivitis enough to perform such simple and accessible to all rules:
- every morning and evening to brush your teeth,
- remove food debris with a dental silk thread,
- regularly undergo preventive examination by a dentist,
- timely clean the teeth from dental plaque and plaque at the dentist, to treat carious teeth and other oral pathology.
also need time to treat other diseases, which may be complicated by the development of gingivitis.