What is the rectum?Rectum -. The end of the large intestine, located in the pelvis, having a length of 15-20 cm It serves as the final form of feces, their accumulation and excretion out.
Tumors may be of benign and malignant character.
- single and group polyps;
- diffuse polyposis (true and secondary pseudopolyposis);
- vascular malformations.
polyp - a neoplasm of the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the rectum.Polyps are formed in different parts of the colon evenly, in the rectum - in 18.8% of cases.Polyps vary in size, shape, structure.In the case of these tumors is quite difficult to recognize the symptoms of colorectal tumors, since they are no early stage.
can then manifest bleeding, intestinal pain, unstable stool with mucus.polyps The danger is that they can cause intestinal obstruction and capable of degeneration into a malignant tumor.
peculiarity of this type is the difficulty of their diagnosis and treatment.Furthermore,
nodular form is more common, the tumor is located in a node on a wide basis or on the stem.
terrestris is not localized in one place, and spread over the mucosa and may affect large areas of it.The mucous membrane around the tumor remains unchanged.
Symptoms of villous tumors are the allocation with the feces of mucus and blood, anemia, against the background of general weakness.
Diffuse polyposis and secondary pseudopolyposis
Family polyposis is a hereditary disease.Most often, it exposed children and adolescents.It is characterized by the formation of a large number of polyps on the mucous membrane mainly rectum.
clinical picture is changeable.Symptoms: diarrhea with mucus and blood, intoxication, fever.Secondary
pseudopolyposis associated with the occurrence of so-called inflammatory polyps, which are formed on the background of colonic lesions, for example, ulcerative colitis.
Benign and malignant tumors
In benign tumors, surgical treatment.Spend ablative surgery (the tumor is cut off), and resection of the bowel polyp (of the affected organ is removed).
Malignant tumors of the rectum - cancer.The causes of the disease are not well understood.High risk of cancer with diffuse polyposis (in 100% of cases) or villous (90%).
In the early stages of the disease is difficult to diagnose.Symptoms of cancer of the rectum often appear much later.Colorectal cancer is a common disease - approximately 4-6% of all cancers of the human body.
Symptoms of colorectal cancer is conventionally divided into four groups.
- first symptom - bleeding.Unlike hemorrhoidal bleeding, bleeding rectal cancer is preceded by a chair, rather than follow it.Bleeding observed in most patients.
- next symptom - a violation in bowel habits that manifest in constipation, diarrhea, change in stool form, incontinence gas and feces, tenesmus.After defecation, patients do not feel relief, there is a sensation of a foreign body in the intestine.
- Pain - the third symptom.Unfortunately, generally come already pain in the later stages of the disease.
- fourth group of symptoms - a violation of the patient's general state of weakness, weight loss, anemia, fatigue.These features are characteristic of the disease at a late stage and are indicators of intoxication.
Diagnosis is made by rectoscopy, X-rays (with the help of a contrast enema) and computed tomography.
main method of treatment is surgical.Furthermore, good results are obtained with a combination of surgical method of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.