Diagnosis of kidney disease : the essence of its organization and methods of identifying pathologies

diagnosis of renal disease carried a specialist who initially produces special recognition syndromes, based on the detection of such deviations as proteinuria, azotemia, high blood pressure, swelling, abnormal components in the urine, electrolyte disorders, infection and changes in the volume of urine.

Conducting a survey of the patient

In a survey of the patient and the establishment of the major complaints expert at posing questions should build on common data semiotics oscillations in the kidney, as well as seek to obtain a more complete picture of the disease from the patient, a complete description of each feature, which may be subject to introspection.These characteristics include:

  1. Violation mochevyvedeniya, as well as changes in the composition of urine.
  2. swelling, and the formation of the character appeared edema.
  3. Pain head, heart pain, kidney and character of these pains.
  4. dyspeptic symptoms.
  5. Violation of the visual organs.

The medical history is necessary to indicate a possible link w

ith the preceding detected pathology or lesions in the body associated illnesses and circumstances, such as a sore throat, scarlet fever, pregnancy, hypothermia with kidney inflammation, constipation, inflammation of the pelvis under.Also indicated information about the previously-borne diseases such as acute form of nephritis, tuberculosis, syphilis, lead poisoning or mercury.

The revision patient

doctor when viewed from a patient with kidney disease usually reveals renal edema, pallor of the skin all over the body and especially on the face.At strong face edema can become misshapen and the person is almost impossible to find, with a little swelling of the face is a little puffy.The first manifestations of edema - are bags under the eyes.

On examination the doctor identifies body region protrusion due to the formation of kidney tumors.When the protrusion provoked an accumulation of purulent masses, it is accompanied by swelling and redness of the skin at the appropriate place.If the kidneys observed severe pain, patients take a forced posture - bend the torso to one side and draw in the corresponding leg of the affected side - so it turns out to achieve muscle relaxation and easing pain.

This is important!

Visit the bladder is carried out in a situation where the body is very stretched a large volume of urine, at which there is a marked increase in the lower abdomen.

Conducting diagnosis by palpation

palpation is considered quite important way to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with renal disease.In a standing position due to gravity and the strong pressure on the kidneys, diaphragm goes down, they become available to the holding feeling.

Despite this detailed palpation in such a position is difficult, because the abdominal muscles in this position can not be relaxed enough in comparison with the position of the body lying down.Therefore body palpation patient in the supine position is more preferred diagnostic method.

X-ray diagnosis of pathologies

Normal kidneys do not differentiate during fluoroscopy.On radiographs bodies can often produce irregular shaped shadow

possibility obtaining image contours organs correlated with the presence of fat in their circumference capsules which, in turn, absorb less x-rays, in contrast to the dense kidney tissue.For this reason, in children due to poor development of the adipose kidney capsule only rarely turns install the shadow of bodies.

This is important!

doctor is difficult using conventional radiographs to establish the size and location of the bodies.The best results provides a X-ray of two bodies in the same film.It is easier to establish the value of the disparity of the two kidneys with each other and the violation of their location.Even more accurate data provides a diagnosis of kidney diseases such as pyelography.

Blood pressure and process cystoscopy and ureteral catheterization

Measurement of blood pressure indicators provides an opportunity to establish a presence and monitor changes of the most important sign of kidney lesions - is hypertension.Cystoscopy for diagnosing lesions is carried out using special equipment cystoscopy.It helps to examine the mucosal surface of the bladder, the outlets in the ureters, monitor urine output, set the ureter special catheters for urine separately from each organ.

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