Symptoms , causes, diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus

brain Hydrocephalus - a dangerous disease that occurs in violation of the fluid circulation mechanisms in the brain.This leads to the fact that the fluid exerts too much pressure on the soft matter of the brain, damaging its function.Ultimately, this can result in the onset of complete physical disability rights and, in any case greatly reduces the quality of life.

Types brain hydrocephalus

This disease is very diverse in its causes and forms.In a place where excessive fluid accumulates distinguished:

  1. internal hydrocephalus - the ventricles of the brain,
  2. external hydrocephalus - the subarachnoid space.
  3. general - fluid accumulation occurs throughout the brain.

At stages of the disease to distinguish between:

  1. progressive hydrocephalus.In this case, the disease is in the active phase, increased intracranial pressure.Decompensated hydrocephalus progresses or mandatory treatment is prescribed.
  2. compensated hydrocephalus If the active phase of the disease has already passed, the press
    ure returned to normal, but the brain ventricles were dilated.In most cases, treatment is required.
  3. subcompensated hydrocephalus is characterized in that when normalize intracranial pressure remains a risk of recurrence of the disease to its further development.

also a separate kind allocate atrophic hydrocephalus, which occurs as a substitution reaction damaged by injury and decreases in brain size.Allocates atrophic hydrocephalus mild, moderate and severe.In severe cases, the prognosis is unfavorable, but in the initial stage of the process is often possible to stop its development and achieve increase in brain volume displacing fluid from the subarachnoid space.

indoor and outdoor hydrocephalus

immediate cause excessive accumulation of fluid will always be an infringement of its production and circulation.Sometimes fluid circulation disorder caused by, for example, a tumor.This occlusive hydrocephalus, in its treatment of the circulation is restored by removing obstacles.Closed, or occlusal, hydrocephalus is divided into:

  1. monoventikulyarnuyu - in this case violated a message with one of the ventricles of the brain,
  2. biventikulyarnaya hydrocephalus occurs when the clogged Both interventricular foramen front and middle sections 3 ventricle.The lateral ventricles at the same time always increased.
  3. triventikulyarnaya hydrocephalus is accompanied by blockade of cerebral aqueduct or 4 ventricle, with extended all the ventricles, aqueduct and interventricular hole,
  4. tetraventikulyarkaya hydrocephalus also seen the expansion of all components of the ventricular system, it is characterized by obstruction of the median and lateral apertures 4 ventricle.

If no fluid circulation no obstacles, but violated the mechanisms of its production and absorption, for example, produces an excessive amount of fluid, which deducing the system can not cope, so the disease is called an open brain hydrocephalus.

causes of disease

cause of hydrocephalus can be infectious diseases, parasitic infection of the brain, brain injury, tumor, bleeding in the brain, that is, any pathological process in the brain.For example, bleeding in the brain can lead to an increase in the volume of the brain ventricles, in this case we speak of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.As a general rule, to treat it is necessary to conduct surgery.This disease can often be found in premature infants who have had a brain hemorrhage.Forecast for such patients is usually unfavorable, but good training of the surgeon and the best of circumstances as a result of endoscopic surgery or conventional bypass manages to save the child.


first signs of hydrocephalus occur 3 weeks after provoking its development of the disease.And even when successful treatment of hydrocephalus symptoms do not disappear, and continue to evolve, as the fluid circulation arrangements can only be repaired by the body with a small degree of damage.

At the first stage the disease itself can not be.After some time, when the pressure on the brain becomes significant, there are nausea, headaches and migraines, lethargy, constant fatigue, and general malaise.In case of these symptoms after suffering a disease that could cause hydrocephalus, an urgent need to contact your doctor.

Symptoms of hydrocephalus in adults during the transition to the chronic form of the disease - is the appearance of symptoms of dementia, gait disturbance, speech, problems with urination.Most of blamed on age, thus losing time when severe complications can be avoided.

Hydrocephalus in newborns is even and the increased size of the cranium, the upper part of the face is much greater, as the disease is accompanied by poor health, which shows a child crying.In this case, as a rule, treatment is initiated in a timely manner, and the onset of most severe consequences can be prevented.The diagnosis is confirmed

often during MRI, after which treatment is prescribed.In severe cases, it is a surgical procedure for installing shunts, but if a small degree of the disease, such as mild outer hydrocephalus assigned medication.

Hydrocephalus in children

may have various causes, from prenatal and birth trauma to infection.It is a serious disease that is difficult to treat.And in this case it is necessary for the early detection of life-saving and proper development of the child.

most often in infants can be observed obvious external symptoms of hydrocephalus.But sometimes the disease apparently can not be shown.When ventriculomegaly, or - vicarious hydrocephalus, the head size is not increased, but the lateral ventricles of the brain larger than normal.If the anomaly was diagnosed on time, 80% of the child's further development will proceed normally.

treatment of hydrocephalus

first step always is medication, it reduces intracranial pressure and prevent complications.In mild form of the disease organism can independently restore the circulation of fluid.If this does not occur, or the seriousness of the violations are not suggesting such a possibility, appointed by surgery.

The goal of surgery - to restore the system output fluid from the brain.For this purpose, usually installed shunt on which liquor is displayed in the abdomen, in the area of ​​the right atrium and into the ureter.Either via endoscopic surgery fully restored the natural fluid circulation system.Such operations are currently carried out more often.

This disease in childhood may lead to severe developmental delay, as well as adults - to the onset of dementia and other serious consequences.Therefore, the appearance of the symptoms of hydrocephalus, especially if you have had one of the diseases, often provoking its development, seek medical attention immediately.

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