Glaucoma one of the most important and necessary methods of conservative treatment is eye drops glaucoma, which help reduce and control intraocular pressure.Chronic increase in pressure may eventually lead to atrophy of the optic nerve and blindness.
How to use eye drops?
basic substance, which is similar to cable and transmits the retinal image in the brain is the optic nerve.This part is called the optic disc and its atrophy occurs gradually from the periphery to the center.Clinically it is manifested by the fact that people no longer see "the corner of his eye," or narrows his peripheral vision, becoming a narrow or "tunneling".Next after this stage - total blindness.
number of nerve fibers in the optic nerve is equal to about 1,000, and each increase of intraocular pressure killed some of them.Therefore, treatment of drops which greatly reduce the pressure in the eye and are used in the initial stages of the disease must be carried out strictly by the clock.
Before how to treat glaucoma ey
Types protivoglaukomatoznyh drops
Home drops task - to decrease intraocular pressure, which can be achieved in various ways.On the mechanism of the impact and the hypotensive action of all glaucoma drops are divided into 3 groups:
- droplets that can reduce intraocular pressure by improving blood flow and outflow of aqueous humor from the eyeball.This group of drugs also called miotikami and is divided into several groups of drugs with different pharmacological effects.
- media which can reduce the pressure by reducing the production of aqueous humor.Normally responsible for this function of cilia ciliary body, and the products that are included in this group of drugs also come in several forms.
- means the combined action - are drugs that reduce the production of aqueous humor and improve the outflow of intraocular fluid simultaneously.These include tools such as fotil (fotil-fort), which is a combination of timolol and pilocarpine and proksofilin, kosopt and ksalakom.The action of these agents lasts for at least 12 hours (24 hours).
Drops for eyes, which improve the outflow of intraocular fluid, divided into the following pharmacological groups:
- Holinomimetiki - in this group there are substances of plant (pilocarpine) and synthetic origin (karbohol).Their main feature - narrowing of the pupil, through which the iris is pulled from the iris-corneal membrane.As a result, it begins to retreat and intraocular fluid pressure is reduced.These drugs help in good form-closure glaucoma.A side effect is manifested in the contraction of the pupil and reduction of visual acuity.In addition, chronic administration may occur conjunctivitis or dermatitis.The main drawback is the short-term effect of this group of drugs (up to 6 hours).
- Sympathomimetics - this group of drugs include adrenaline (epinephrine), which also affects the nervous system.Adverse actions include symptoms such as redness of the mucous membranes, mydriasis (dilation) of the pupil, increased blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances.
- Prostaglandins - this group of drugs are Travatan and Xalatan, which remain in effect for 24 hours.It is widely used to form open-angle glaucoma.By the side effects are redness, swelling, burning sensation in the eyes.
eye drops for glaucoma, which reduce the production of aqueous humor, and are divided into several groups:
- carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - to the drugs in this group include substances such as Azopt and trusopt that block enzymes of the ciliary body and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
- Agonists of α-2 adrenergic receptors - these include clonidine (clonidine) and brimonidine.The distinguishing feature of these substances is a dual action - improving the outflow of moisture and reduce production.
- β-blockers - substances of this group include timolol (other names arutimol, okupress, okumed) and proksodol.These drops should not be taken for people with obstructive lung disease, corneal dystrophy, cardiac rhythm violation.
not recommended for patients with glaucoma itself appoint a medication, even if they are widely advertised in the media.All eye drops should be administered by glaucoma ophthalmologist.