Nearsightedness (myopia) is one of the most common disorders of the visual system.
person suffering from myopia, difficulty seeing distant objects.In most cases, the reason for this is the elongation of the eyeball, resulting in a projected image is not on the retina, and the area in front of her.
This article describes the causes of myopia in children, methods of treatment and prevention.
Today myopia can truly be considered "Youthful" disease.This disease is most often found in children aged 8 - 12 years, and in adolescence is its gain.
myopia among adolescents in recent years has acquired a truly frightening scale - for myopia statistics suffers every third child aged 14 - 15 years.Stabilized visual acuity is usually between the ages of 18 to 25 years.
Factors affecting the development of myopia in a child
Myopia in children can be caused by one of the following reasons:
- Hereditary predisposition.First of all, at risk are the children of parents who suffer from myopia.And not inherited illness as such, but a predisposition to its development, due to the weakness of the eye tissue, which may stretch during the growth of the eye.
- Congenital anomalies of the eyeball.Myopia in children may occur due to congenital abnormalities of the cornea or lens, as well as due to congenital glaucoma.
- increased visual load.Child visual system is largely different from an adult human visual system.The vast majority of children (90%) are born with hyperopia, also called the "margin of farsightedness."This reserve is intended to compensate for the subsequent growth of the eyeball, which terminated in the 14 - 16 years.To focus the mind on close objects (for example, on a computer monitor), the child is forced to strain certain structures of the eye.These actions are completely reflex and does not depend on his mind.As a result of prolonged stress and focus the eyes on small moving objects can be activated miopizatsii mechanisms (growth) of the eyeball, which in turn lead to the development of myopia.
- overall health of the child.Myopia in children may develop under the influence of the disease that are not directly related to the organs of sight.That is why the prevention of myopia is very important time to treat all children's diseases - from scoliosis to tonsillitis.
- Malnutrition.Lack of magnesium, calcium, zinc, essential vitamins is quite able to cause the development of myopia in children.
- Improper equipment and posture at your desk.Among other things, the development of myopia is largely due to the lack of good lighting workplace child not picked up by the growth of furniture, the wrong posture.
Treatment of the disease in children
How to treat myopia in a child?To answer this question it is necessary, first of all, to determine at what stage the disease.
Initially, a so-called temporary or reversible myopia.The first and the main sign of her - the deterioration of the distance.The child has to squint to see distant objects, low tilt your head while reading books or other books, he will complain to rapid eye fatigue.
At this stage, the further development of the disease can be prevented, which is necessary as soon as possible to seek help from a specialist.
Measures to prevent the development of myopia at this stage may include:
- special exercises for the eyes;
- exercise therapy;
- vitamin therapy.
If for any reason the first stage of the disease has been passed, it becomes true myopia.At this stage practiced myopia correction with glasses or contact lenses.
vision correction prevents the development of diseases and worsening of its manifestations, such as, for example, damage to the retina.Due to glasses and contact lenses compensated for the excess length of the eyeball image of the individual objects projected on the retina, resulting in a visual acuity normal.
should be remembered that as the child grows and his eyes are growing, which requires changes in vision correction.Therefore, you need to visit an ophthalmologist regularly.
In severe cases require more radical methods of treatment, which includes surgery.As a result of discontinued operations scleroplastic abnormal growth of the eyeball and prevents progressive loss of vision.
to surgical methods of struggle with myopia also includes laser treatment of myopia.Its essence lies in the optical effects on the cornea, resulting in changing its shape, and the image starts to focus, as expected, on the retina.
Laser vision correction is a fast, effective and painless procedure, ensuring a minimum period of recovery and long-lasting effect.However, it can be carried out only in adulthood.
Parents should remember that children's room should be well lit.It requires attention posture in which the child is sitting at a desk: the body should be positioned vertically, head slightly tilted forward, the shoulders should be parallel to the table.
And, of course, need to closely monitor the amount of time a child spends on the computer or the television screen.