Hyperparathyroidism : causes, symptoms , diagnosis and treatment of disease

Hyperparathyroidism - a disease that is caused by disorders of the endocrine system, in which there is increased production of PTH parathyroid glands.In this disease, impaired calcium and phosphorus metabolism.

Increasing the amount of calcium in the blood causes a change in the bone, as work started osteoclasts - cells responsible for bone destruction.As a result of disorders of calcium metabolism and increased allocation of phosphorus causes such pathological process in the kidneys as giperfosfaturiya.The quantity of phosphate in the blood is significantly reduced.

According to statistics, the disease ill people over the age of 50 years.Women suffer more often than men.Factor which can cause hyperparathyroidism may be ionizing radiation.

Causes of hyperparathyroidism usually hyperplasia or tumors in the parathyroid gland.

Classification hyperparathyroidism

According to the classification distinguishes between the following types of hyperparathyroidism:

  • Primary hyperparathyroidism - there is
    increased function of parathyroid glands due to hyperplasia arising, or the presence of tumors (benign or malignant).Secondary hyperparathyroidism
  • - occurs as a compensatory mechanism in response to the reduction of phosphate and calcium in the blood increase.This results in an even greater increase in parathyroid gland function and the growth of its fabric.
  • Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - is characterized by the formation of parathyroid adenoma, as a response to long-existing secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Psevdogiperparatireoz - in this case, all developing hyperparathyroidism symptoms, but the cause are different tumors in other organs and systems.

In clinical hyperparathyroidism disease can occur in various forms.There are the following forms of the disease:

  1. Bone shape, in which there are features such as the curvature of thinning or complete resorption of bone.This process occurs because large amounts of activated osteoclasts.Clinically it is manifested by pains in the bones, spontaneous fractures of bones, formation of false joints, change the shape and length of the skeleton caused by improper bone fusion.
  2. kidney-shaped, in which there are degenerative-dystrophic changes in the kidney tissue.Develop such severe complications like nephrolithiasis (kidney stones deposition) and nephrocalcinosis (multiple calcium in the kidneys).
  3. Gastrointestinal, where are such symptoms as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, ulcers picture 12 duodenal ulcer and acute pancreatitis, chronic constipation.Violation of the reception and processing of food leads to exhaustion and sudden weight loss.
  4. Neurological form in which the fore symptoms of central nervous system - fatigue, weakness, susceptibility to depression, nervous breakdowns, auditory or visual hallucinations, movement disorder, ataxia.

Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism

When hyperparathyroidism is difficult to immediately understand which form of the disease is prevalent, as the symptoms occur in other diseases described above.But hyperparathyroidism disease symptoms The following symptoms are the most common:

  • There is a characteristic "duck" gait, the sick as if swinging from side to side.
  • appears chronic fatigue syndrome, lethargy, fatigue.Patients literally do not stand on their feet and try to sit down.
  • constant thirst and increased urination.High blood calcium begins to block the antidiuretic hormone, which is responsible for the amount of urine.
  • Muscle weakness and muscle pain.Because of muscle pain in the feet, patients are unable to walk.
  • loss of healthy teeth due to their loosening.
  • may appear uncontrollable vomiting and nausea, as well as a tendency to constipation.
  • sharp rise in temperature to 40 degrees, and loss of consciousness in severe cases.
  • Increasing underweight and severe exhaustion.
  • The kidneys appear rocks or sand.

noted that hyperparathyroidism in children can occur as a secondary disease that is a reaction to the reduced amount of calcium in the blood.Hypocalcemia cause conditions such as rickets (if the D vitamin deficiency), chronic kidney disease (hyperphosphatemia), malabsorption syndrome.

Diagnosis and treatment of hyperparathyroidism



Modern medicine considers expedient to hold an early diagnosis of the disease.When the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosis is carried out on the basis of inspection, complaints and patient data analysis.The earlier the diagnosis is exposed, the easier it will be to carry out the treatment.

When hyperparathyroidism disease treated with surgery alone, and involves the removal of the parathyroid glands.Primary Hyperparathyroidism also treated surgically and gives good long-term results.

When secondary hyperparathyroidism treatment includes not only the removal of the parathyroid gland, but symptomatic therapy.The blood is necessary to reduce the amount of calcium (drinking plenty of fluids, administration of infusion solutions and potassium preparations).If necessary, a hormone treatment and radiation radiotherapy parathyroid (in severe cases of the disease).

disease prognosis depends upon the shape and extent of the parathyroid gland lesion and stage of disease.In primary hyperparathyroidism forecast is always beneficial if carried out an operation.In secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism prognosis depends on the state of the kidneys.In severe kidney disease the disease is not always favorable prognosis.

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