Hyperinsulinism - a condition in which there is a high hormone insulin in the blood, and as a result, dramatically reduced the level of blood sugar.Normally, insulin is produced in the pancreas islets of Langerhans.When hyperinsulinism islets begin to produce a hormone more than necessary, causing a pathological state.
Among all forms of the disease are primary hyperinsulinism, which is also known as pancreatic, that is arising due to the pathology of the pancreas, and secondary.In secondary disease cause hyperinsulinism can be a variety of diseases and, therefore, this form is called vnepankreaticheskim /
disease can affect both the whole area of the islets in the pancreas, and be patchy, i.e. changes occur in any part of the breast tissue.
Causes of hyperinsulinism
The causes of the disease are:
- Benign and malignant tumors arising in the islets of Langerhans.
- diseases of the central nervous system.
- tumor or diffuse hyperplasia of the pancreas.
- initial stages of diabetes.
- defeat of the endocrine system (pituitary, hypothalamus).
- metabolic disorders.
- vnepankreaticheskim reasons - diseases of the stomach, liver, gall bladder.
- Inadequate intake and blood sugar.
- Prolonged fasting (anorexia, pyloric stenosis).
- rapid loss of carbohydrates due to a fever, or severe physical work.
When the disease hyperinsulinism symptoms due to low blood sugar.It is known that glucose plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism, a glycogen reserve (glucose derivative) necessary cells as an energy source.Therefore, hyperinsulinism is characterized by the following symptoms:
- sharp weakness, until he lost consciousness.
- feels a strong hunger.
- Reduced pressure and body temperature.
- Trembling in the lower extremities.
- skin pallor.
- anxiety, depression.
- condition of disorientation.
- Cramps, similar to an epileptic seizure.
Hyperinsulinism can be either acute or chronic.Chronic hyperinsulinism in severe cases may result in coma.In addition, chronic form of the disease may be accompanied by an apathetic state, mental decline, and men noted the development of weakness and decline in potency.
This is due to the fact that the brain begins to receive an average of 20% less than the glucose and oxygen, thereby developing a chronic oxygen starvation of the brain, giving rise to a violation of the work of all organs and systems.
functional hyperinsulinism develops against the background of other diseases of the endocrine system, and is regarded as a secondary hyperinsulinism.Most often, this form of the disease is Cushing's disease (overproduction of adrenal hormones) and acromegaly (excessive growth hormone production).
Hyperinsulinism in children does not appear as bright as in adults, but if disturbed mechanism of insulin hormone on the growth and development of the symptoms of hyperinsulinism growing child.
Recently, such a condition has been observed more frequently as congenital hyperinsulinism.The reasons that this can lead to severe disorders are unknown, so this form of the disease in neonates are called idiopathic hyperinsulinism.
Congenital hyperinsulinism organic can occur ka against unfavorable heredity, as it is not ruled out the cause of a genetic defect.
Treatment of hyperinsulinism
When the disease hyperinsulinism treatment is often surgical (for tumors of the pancreas), as conservative methods do not give a good effect.The goal of surgery is to remove that portion of the pancreas, where there is swelling.Postoperatively, the patients observed mortality rate (8-10%).
If the cause of the disease were vnepankreaticheskim reason, the treatment to be first these diseases.
For patients with this diagnosis developed a special diet, which includes foods rich in complex carbohydrates.Character power - fractional, in small portions, but 5-6 times a day.
Ambulance patients with loss of consciousness is immediate administration of glucose solution intravenously.If the patient feels an attack coming, you need a hot sweet tea, which can rapidly improve the condition of the patient.