hyperprolactinemia - a high content of the hormone prolactin in the blood.Fiziologicheskayagiperprolaktinemiya women happens during pregnancy or during lactation.But this condition can occur without pregnancy, both women and men.The main feature is the allocation of milk or colostrum from the breast.
prolactin hormone plays an important role in the hormonal system, and if its amount is increased, while there is a lack of menstruation or amenorrhea.That is why in the early postpartum period (during breastfeeding) for several months, women do not have menstruation, and this condition is not abnormal.
hyperprolactinemia When the disease causes are varied and are divided into the following groups:
- diseases in which there is a violation of the hypothalamus.These include benign or malignant tumors, infections (meningitis, encephalitis, tuberculosis), and various hypothalamic injury.
- Diseases in which there is an infringement of the pituitary gland.These include micro and makroopuholi different etiology, as well as the syndrome of "empty sella" when radiographs discover dystrophic-degenerative changes of the pituitary gland.
- other diseases related to the endocrine system.These include hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian disease, cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis, shingles, chronic renal failure.Receiving
- certain drugs, which may cause changes in the endocrine system (oral contraceptives, opiates, cocaine, estrogens, antiemetic agents, antidepressants).
Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia
at diagnosis hyperprolactinemia symptoms can begin suddenly, sometimes gradually.The clinical picture of the disease is characterized mainly a symptom of milk separation from the breast.
hyperprolactinemia syndrome in women is also accompanied by a violation of menstrual function, and in men a decrease in desire and potency.Laktoreya may be small, a few drops, and spontaneous, when the milk flows constantly from the nipple.Usually the nature of discharge from the breast is marked with "+", from one to several.
Sometimes the only symptom of hyperprolactinemia is a failure in the normal menstrual function.Violations can be as follows:
- shortening of the luteal phase, at which the two-phase uterine bleeding.
- Opsomenoreya when uterine bleeding lasts for 30 days or more.
- Oligomenorrhea in which there are scanty menses.
- amenorrhea, which is characterized by the complete absence of menstruation.
- Metrorrhagia, which is characterized by profuse bleeding and requires emergency treatment.
Hyperprolactinemia in women may be associated with an increase in body weight at which the fluid is a delay in the body, as well as osteoporosis.Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia added acne on the face, there are various spots, and changing body hair (male pattern).This is because the high content of the hormone prolactin causes an increase in androgens - male sex hormones.
Hyperprolactinemia in men manifests itself in the form of reduced craving, and many men at the same time noted a sharp decline in erectile function.With the progression of the disease can occur impotence.At first, many men do not pay attention to the reduction of potency, as it is associated with multiple psychogenic factors.
Sometimes in such cases, neurologists put men diagnosed with "psychogenic impotence."This can be a diagnostic error, as for the differential diagnosis with hyperprolactinemia should check the level of prolactin in the blood.
Very often hyperprolactinemia in men occurs while taking anabolic steroids.Then, except for allocation of milk from the breasts, joined by symptoms such as gynecomastia (breast enlargement in women's type) and a decrease in testicular size, followed by softening.Men have also seen a pronounced osteoporosis, headaches, blurred vision (visual field loss and decreased visual acuity).
In some cases it happens that men go to the doctors for a long time Sexologists, urologists and ophthalmologist, trying to figure out the cause of this pathological condition.Therefore, the diagnosis in men is placed later than women, which leads to gynecologists mainly menstrual dysfunction.
In the case of endocrine disorders hyperprolactinemia symptoms manifest themselves as dry mouth, weakness, tachycardia, excessive sweating, irritability, tearfulness.
Much harder is the picture of the disease, if the cause are different tumors of the hypothalamus and pituitary.There are signs of hyperprolactinemia such as loss of field of vision, painful headaches, leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the nose, paresis and paralysis.Psycho-emotional status of patients with severely impaired, there are depression, sleep disturbance, loss of memory.